Listen to leading experts discuss current trends in vocational education and training.
Listen to leading experts discuss current trends in vocational education and training.
This practical guide helps TVET institutions to understand the organizational plans needed to build up their capacity to stimulate digital learning. It also guides teachers that want to develop their competencies, improve their pedagogical strategies with use of technology, and learn from existing practice.
Guide and digital interactive assessment tool on Making TVET and skills development inclusive for all
The guide aims to help skills decision-makers and practitioners assess to what extent their TVET system is currently excluding certain individuals or groups, identifies underlying reasons, and provides practical ideas on what could be done to redress inequalities.
En français. Guide pour rendre l’EFTP et le développement des compétences inclusifs pour tous
This paper investigates the realisation of competence-based education (CBE) in vocational education in Indonesia. It examines the extent to which CBE design principles of the Comprehensive Competence-Based Education Framework developed in a Western context exist in Indonesian policy documents and school practices.
In this paper, we discuss the possible directions that vocational education might take in the contemporary social, economic and technological context of the early 21st century. Taking account of the unresolved debates around vocational education internationally and future global economic demands for expertise we discuss tensions and dichotomies that continue to shape the character of vocational education by questioning definitions of the ‘vocational’ historically and in current policy.
England. Closing the Gap between Vocational and General Education? Evidence from University Technical Colleges in England
For students who enter at a more conventional transition age of 16, University Technical Colleges (UTCs) boost vocational achievement without harming academic achievement. They also improve achievement in STEM qualifications, and enrolment in apprenticeships. By age 19, UTC students are less likely to be unemployed and more likely to study STEM at university.
Germany. Does tertiary vocational education beat academic education? A matching analysis of young men’s earnings developments
This paper shows that young men who completed an apprenticeship education plus a tertiary vocational education have considerably higher earnings during the first half of their career than those who obtained an academic education in addition to their apprenticeship education.
UNESCO COVID-19 Education Response
En français. COVID-19. Systèmes d’EFTP et marchés du travail
The study implies that the two VET pathways, school-based VET and apprenticeship training, have significant differences. However, in the construction sector, differences between students’ experiences of workplace learning seem to be less visible.
This discussion paper aims to inspire the introduction of entrepreneurial learning in TVET. It provides insight into the different approaches to mainstreaming entrepreneurial learning and illustrates the contribution of the key pillars that make up the entrepreneurial learning ecosystem.
The paper shows that
-providing vocational training that either emphasizes social or technical skills increases formal employment for both men and women
– admission to a vocational program that emphasizes technical relative to social skills increases overall employment and also days and hours worked in the short term.
This glossary is a compilation of Australian vocational education and training (VET) terms and acronyms. It includes both current and historical terms, concepts, acronyms and other abbreviations found in Australian VET research, policy and data.
Young African migrants are pushed into uni, but more find success and happiness in vocational training
For disadvantaged people with disrupted educational trajectories, such as refugees, vocational qualifications can widen access to paid jobs and enhance economic independence. But many still consider vocational education and training (VET) qualifications not as prestigious as university degrees. This is a widespread issue, especially in African communities.
Many African parents push their children to go to university regardless of their preparedness or interest. The outcome is dispiriting. Most of them leave university without a degree. They drop out.
Switzerland. General or Vocational Education? The Role of Vocational Interests in Educational Decisions at the End of Compulsory School in Switzerland
Many educational systems are characterized by segregation between a general and vocational educational track. When adolescents must decide on their postcompulsory education at the end of lower secondary school, the different programs are typically embedded in one of these two main tracks. This paper examines the impact of vocational interests on the choice of Baccalaureate School (BAC, general track), Vocational Education and Training (VET, vocational track) or the Federal Vocational Baccalaureate (FVB), a hybrid qualification that links elements of both tracks.
In this discussion paper, we explore the role of vocational education and training (VET) in preparing people for the current and future workforce.
The virtual conference discussed the identification and implementation of new qualifications and competencies in curricula and training regulations.
This discussion paper aims to highlight the reasons why in developing and emerging economies, TVET in agriculture differs to TVET in other sectors, and explores seven key challenges faced in implementing effective agricultural TVET programmes.
This report provides evidence in support of the development of indicators of a benchmark to monitor work-based learning in formal VET.
Analytical synthesis of the 2nd Regional Workshop for Exchange between Vocational Training Actors in Africa and their Mutual Strengthening, held in Nairobi from 18-20 June 2019.
En français. Afrique. Des systèmes d’EFTP de qualité pour une transition formation-emploi réussie des jeunes en Afrique
This note provides guidance on reducing the adverse impact of the pandemic on TVET provision and enhancing the contribution TVET can make to mitigating the health, social, and economic impact of COVID-19.
Upper secondary education for youth at risk: A comparative analysis of education and training programmes in Austria, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland
The four countries surveyed differ widely in terms of educational traditions and the position of VET at upper secondary level. Regarding the integration of disadvantaged youth into education and work, the differences concerning access to upper secondary education, the importance of VET at upper secondary level and the recognition of training programmes for youth at risk may be of particular relevance. Further research is needed to empirically investigate the effectiveness of the identified education and training models as a means of integrating youth at risk into upper secondary education.
We argue that there are five key policy themes in building a vocational skilled workforce: (1) the dedication of the government in increasing the quantity of vocational skilled workforce, (2) encouraging collaboration between vocational colleges and industries, (3) fostering a greater role for private vocational providers, (4) promoting a positive reputation for vocational education, and (5) maintaining the continuity of policy implementation.
Despite recent advances in technology, distance learning, be it online or offline, is not a long-term substitute for face-to-face teaching and practical skills training. In low- and middle-income countries, there are many issues impeding the wider and permanent diffusion of distance learning. These involve socio-economic and cultural aspects beside the limited ICT infrastructure that contributes to the digital divide.
Changes in the qualification profiles of workers is one indicator of changes in the supply and demand for education and training. The emerging need for flexible reskilling and upskilling based on skill sets or micro-credentials may drive future demand for VET; the sector is already well placed to provide this efficient and cost-effective training.
Resources for TVET Managers and Policy-Makers.
There has been a growing emphasis on providing students in vocational education and training (VET) with workplace experiences. School-based VET and apprenticeship training have been parallel routes in the Finnish VET system, but relatively little is known of their characteristics regarding students’ experiences.
This book provides a rich collection of research and practice perspectives around central topics in the field of work-based learning (WBL). The research approaches presented in this book are meant to support everyone in meeting their TVET objectives, regardless of region and scale.
Different forms of online learning and collaboration have become the focus of attention in an effort to ensure continuity of learning.
This guide presents an analytic framework that summarizes some of the main elements and issues that need to be considered in measuring ROI.
Poland. Research Design and Preliminary Results of an Exploratory Study on Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Poland
TVET in Poland has a long tradition and distinctive features set in Polish geographic, economic and social context. Even though there is no unique and specific TVET low in Poland like for example the Vocational Training Act in Germany, numerous educational reforms conducted in Poland have been instrumental to shaping the contemporary form of this type of education. The last educational reform from 2017 introduced changes that profoundly influenced the structure of TVET in Poland.
One-fifth of the global population under the age of 25 now resides in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the world’s youngest region, which is growing at a rapid rate. The region’s working age population is expected to reach 600 million in 2030, with a youth share of 37 percent—bigger than that in China. However, Africa already faces high and rising unemployment rates, with youth particularly vulnerable. Across Africa, youth unemployment (10.9 percent) is essentially double that of adults (5.6 percent).
There are needs for didactical development and scientific research in vocational pedagogies in Thailand. To enhance quality of TVET and for further development of TVET-systems, it is necessary to continuously exchange knowledge between scientists and practitioners from different countries and to do research in TVET especially on Work-related Learning.
The European Union’s economic recovery has strengthened. But the economic downturn has accelerated long-term trends of globalisation and digitalisation that demand new skills. Forecasts of a smaller available workforce due to demographic trends are also becoming a reality. Vocational education and training (VET) can help tackle these issues, especially as part of a comprehensive policy approach.
En français. UE. Améliorer l’enseignement et la formation professionnels grâce aux données, aux analyses et aux échanges
Thailand and Malaysia. Comparing Employability Skills of Technical and Vocational Education Students of Thailand and Malaysia: A Case Study of International Industrial Work-Integrated Learning
While high quality apprenticeships are recognized as a successful pathway for young people in the transition from school-to-work, there have been limited opportunities for apprentices to be represented and contribute to policy discussions at European level.
Malawi. Gender Differences in the Effects of Vocational Training: Constraints on Women and Drop-Out Behavior
This paper provides experimental evidence on the effects of vocational and entrepreneurial training for Malawian youth, in an environment where access to schooling and formal sector employment is extremely low. It tracks a large fraction of program drop-outs — a common phenomenon in the training evaluation literature — and examines the determinants and consequences of dropping out and how it mediates the effects of such programs.
Malawi. Analytical report on the consultative monitoring and evaluation framework for involving employers, workers and other stakeholders in TEVET programmes in Malawi
The study revealed that the country lacks a participatory monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework that allows private-sector and other stakeholders to participate in the M&E of TEVET programmes. Because of this lack of a participatory framework, the country faces a situation where there is a mismatch between the range of TEVET programmes provided by training institutions and the needs of industry.
The role of VET in developing entrepreneurship has experienced increasing attention internationally. This research draws together international literature on teaching and learning for entrepreneurialism with the goal of informing potential Australian developments in this area.
Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in China aims to enhance the employability of its labour force and to contribute to China’s social and economic development. The policy documents aim to support the development of a world-class modern vocational education system that meets China’s needs by 2020.
Communities hold technical and vocational training in disdain and this has resulted in an influx of individuals who are enrolled in universities ultimately resulting in high unemployment. The study sought to understand why communities are shunning technical and vocational training with the ultimate aim of finding lasting solutions to building confidence in technical and vocational training.
Although governments and development partners have noticeably improved skills development across eastern and southern Africa over the past decade, reforming the TVET sector is critical to address the scale of youth unemployment and to meet the demand for new skills in a changing global economy.
Nigeria. Public-private-civil society partnership: a gateway to ensuring good governance practices of vocational education programme in south-south Nigerian federal universities
This study aims at investigating the extent to which public-private-civil society partnership (PPCSP) can help in establishing good governance practices of vocational education programme in Federal Universities in South-South geopolitical region of Nigeria.
The education sector is affected as only qualified, highly skilled and educated employees are required. IR4.0 technologies have created new jobs in meeting the needs of the existing market, as such more services and unique products will be introduced. Therefore, this study identifies the technical competency needed by industries towards future industrial revolution for TVET graduates.
Progress has been made in recognizing the value of core skills for the world of work, building them into curricula and ensuring some measure of professional development for teachers and trainers.
This report seeks to increase understanding of how to improve girls’ and young women’s participation in TVET and to help strengthen the bridge between their education and employment.
This publication is a useful starting point for work by policy makers, social partners, experts and researchers. It provides orientation to a range of other actors involved in VET-related activities: VET providers, teachers and trainers; guidance, qualifications and validation staff; and other readers who want to familiarise themselves with VET systems across and beyond Europe.
This timeline helps understand the scale of change and the individual policies, programs or initiatives that have shaped VET at both the national and state and territory levels. The comprehensive resource also includes economic events that may have influenced enrolments and completions of VET courses, apprenticeships and traineeships.