This paper aims to inform the next steps in VET policy- making at EU level.
This paper aims to inform the next steps in VET policy- making at EU level.
L’apprentissage contribue à la création de bons emplois pour les personnes et au développement de compétences pour les entreprises et les marchés du travail.
En anglais. Europe. Apprenticeships for adults
Apprenticeships for adults are one of the policy solutions to the need for supporting adults willing to train, while broadening the skills base of the working population across Europe.
In French. Europe. L’apprentissage pour adultes
Europe. Regards comparatifs sur la formation en Europe : un plafond de verre du côté des entreprises françaises
Depuis 2005, l’effort de formation des entreprises européennes est en croissance et les pratiques se diversifient. Les entreprises françaises, initialement parmi les plus formatrices, font preuve d’une grande stabilité dans le temps, conservant un modèle prédominant fondé sur les cours et les stages. La loi Avenir professionnel, impulsant de nouvelles pratiques d’entreprises, pourrait faciliter le maintien des compétences des salariés dans une conjoncture économique défavorable.
As the need for digital government capabilities increases during the COVID-19 pandemic, the European public sector can close the skills gap by focusing on three areas: recruiting, upskilling and reskilling..
European VET varies between countries and is becoming more diverse in its programmes and qualifications and also expanding into higher levels, challenging the perception of higher education as exclusively academically oriented. In some countries, this reflects a step towards making lifelong learning a reality; in others, traditional VET is coming under pressure from declining youth cohorts and a growing preference for general education and training. Such negative developments can be seen as a forewarning of future challenges.
COVID-19. Europe. How are European countries managing apprenticeships to respond to the COVID-19 crisis?
ll the countries surveyed make efforts to keep up with the learning at school via distance learning and maintain the contracts with the companies. The aim is not to lose the year, although most countries are still working out how to deal with the final assessment (postponement being the worst-case scenario).
Distance learning however is piecemeal, and its use very much depends on the schools’ and teachers’ e-skills and availability, and on sectors. Its use ranges from mere communication/keeping in touch with students, to access to resources (videos etc.), to actual teaching. Some countries are considering virtual final assessment.
While high quality apprenticeships are recognized as a successful pathway for young people in the transition from school-to-work, there have been limited opportunities for apprentices to be represented and contribute to policy discussions at European level.
Europe. Aligning teacher competence frameworks to 21st century challenges: The case for the European Digital Competence Framework for Educators (DigCompEdu)
Teachers need to update their competence profiles for 21st century challenges. Teaching strategies need to change and so do the competences teachers need to develop so as to empower 21st‐century learners. The European Framework for the Digital Competence of Educators (DigCompEdu) represents a paradigmatic example of this endeavour, taking stock of these needs.
This publication is a useful starting point for work by policy makers, social partners, experts and researchers. It provides orientation to a range of other actors involved in VET-related activities: VET providers, teachers and trainers; guidance, qualifications and validation staff; and other readers who want to familiarise themselves with VET systems across and beyond Europe.
Europe. The Highest Skilled Workers of Industry 4.0: New Forms of Work Organization for New Professions. A Comparative Study
This paper analyses the most relevant juridical structures that could be adapted to assure a relevant degree of labour protection to the considered highest skilled workers, allowing them, at the same time, to provide their services to a wide range of customers, highlighting pros and cons of each considered strategy and suggesting an overall approach to this issue, from a European point of view.
The aim of the project is to improve our understanding of how VET is changing in the European Union countries (including Norway and Iceland).
Building on detailed national case studies, the report demonstrates the expansion and diversification of vocationally oriented education and training offered at higher levels in European countries and the variations in how countries use the higher levels: there is evidence for strengthening vocational principles at higher levels in various ways as well as for strengthening academic principles.
See also Volumes 1 to 5
Labour markets are currently in a phase of cyclical recovery and undergoing structural transformation due to globalisation, demographic trends, advancing digital technologies and automation and changes in labour market institutions. For Europe at large, persistent skill gaps and mismatches come at economic and social costs.
Analysing online job vacancies is a promising approach to identify emerging jobs and skill needs, as it offers rich real-time information about the skills employers seek. While modern technology has made it easier to process huge quantities of information, analysis needs to be based on sound expert judgement.
En français. Europe. Les compétences recherchées par les employeurs
Concise, clear and concrete pictures of countries’ vocational education and training systems. Building on individual country Spotlights, this publication brings together the main features and data of VET in the EU, Iceland and Norway.
This book brings together a broad range of approaches and methodologies relevant to international comparative vocational education and training (VET). Revealing how youth in transition is affected by economic crises, it provides essential insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the various systems and prospects of VET in contexts ranging from North America to Europe, to Asia.
L’analyse de l’évolution de l’EFP depuis 1995 a permis d’esquisser une série de pistes potentielles – des scénarios – permettant de dégager une image plausible et cohérente de l’évolution de l’EFP d’ici 2035, en fonction des décisions et des choix politiques d’aujourd’hui.
An analysis of VET developments since 1995 has helped to outline a series of potential paths – scenarios – pointing towards plausible and consistent pictures of how VET can evolve by 2035, depending on today’s decisions and policy choices.
Europe. Staying in the Loop: Formal Feedback Mechanisms Connecting Vocational Training to the World of Work in Europe
Existing approaches in the economic sociology of labour markets, the varieties of capitalism approach as well as comparative research on welfare states are useful in predicting whether particular VET systems are likely to be predominant. However, they do not provide an alternative in describing differences in VET systems which the concept of formal feedback mechanism does.
The aim of the paper is to identify and analyse patterns and trends in enrolment in upper secondary initial vocational education and training (IVET) in Europe over the period 1995 to 2015.
Appropriate measuring of skills mismatches is necessary to create an adequate policy response. We analyse the existing evidence, in particular in large scale international surveys: Survey of Skills (PIAAC) and European Skills and Jobs Survey (ESJ). We find out that national, occupational and sectoral differences in the scale of the skills mismatch in Europe are equally important.
L’offre de formation continue en matière de développement durable est encore mal connue : quels types de formations écologiques sont actuellement proposés, et à quels publics ? Comment les organismes prennent-ils en charge ces domaines de connaissances, encore émergents et souvent très pointus techniquement ?
Europe et Asie. Le développement professionnel en perspective internationale : un projet de formation hybride entre Europe et Asie
La formation des formateurs d’enseignants peut bénéficier d’une éducation internationale, également médiatisée par des ressources numériques, visant au développement des compétences didactiques, linguistiques et interculturelles. Le but de cette contribution est de discuter et de présenter une proposition d’ingénierie de formation pour une communauté internationale. Pour cela, il est présenté le projet « Blended Learning Training for Teachers Educators » (BLTeae).
La formation professionnelle de demain devra désormais respecter des exigences de qualité, dues tant aux prescripteurs qu’aux apprenants. À la clé, la question centrale est bien celle d’une formation professionnelle à même de réduire les inégalités devant l’emploi, plutôt que d’accentuer les avantages des insiders.
This work documents the shares of non-automatable and automatable jobs in 24 European countries over the last three decades. Knowledge of this distribution is important as it reveals the countries, and the demographics within these countries whose employment is the most vulnerable to disappearing because of automation, as well countries who have tended towards substituting labour with automation at a faster rate over the last two decades. The same distribution also reveals the jobs that are likely to stay with us in the future, to the extent that they are non-automatable.
Vivons-nous une nouvelle révolution technologique et industrielle ? Est-elle d’une nature différente des précédentes ? Comment évaluer ses implications politiques ? Selon la tradition de recherche en économie évolutionniste, notamment le concept de paradigme technico-économique, la phase actuelle de digitalisation de l’économie n’est pas une nouvelle révolution mais le point de basculement entre la période d’installation et la période de déploiement du paradigme basé sur les technologies de l’information et de la communication.
in English. Europe. Technological revolutions and societal transitions
Are we currently living through a new industrial and technological revolution? Does it differ qualitatively from similar revolutions in the past? How can we gauge its political implications? Researchers working within the school of evolutionary economics, in particular those who embrace the concept of techno-economic paradigms, regard the ongoing digitalisation of the economy not as a new revolution, but as the turning point between the installation period and the deployment period of a paradigm based on information and communication technologies.
En français. Europe. Révolutions technologiques et transitions dans la société
L’intelligence artificielle apparait souvent comme une promesse mais ne nous y trompons pas, cette révolution ne se produira pas dans 50 ou 60 ans : elle a lieu en ce moment même. Cette transformation radicale est à la fois une chance inouïe et une responsabilité immense. C’est maintenant que nous devons nous emparer pleinement des opportunités de l’intelligence artificielle tout en pensant le cadre de sa régulation.
We investigate the relationship between job complexity and the skills development of adult workers in Europe. The results suggest that challenging workplaces, workplaces in which jobs are designed to include complex tasks, and which place high demands on workers’ skills, also stimulate workers’ skills development. Increasing the degree of job complexity has positive and robust effects on the degree of skill development, and so does an increase in work experience (tenure). The analysis stresses the importance of on-the-job learning and contextual workplace characteristics for adult workers’ skills development.
The 39 countries monitored (28 EU Member States, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Kosovo, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland and Turkey) are developing and implementing 43 national qualifications frameworks.
This thematic report provides an overview of validation monitoring of non-formal and informal learning across Europe.
A very high numbers of young people are neither in education or training nor in employment. In thirteen out of 18 countries covered in the study, more than one in every four young people between 15 and 29 years old are not in education or in employment. The study shows that the risk of becoming NEET increases with age: it is lowest for the 15-19 age group, higher for 20-24 year olds and the highest for 25-29 year olds.
Alors que les salariés occupant les emplois les moins qualifiés expriment, aussi souvent que les autres, le souhait de se former, ils formulent nettement moins de demandes de formation. Comment expliquer ce décalage ? Si le souhait de se former va de pair avec les perspectives professionnelles perçues par les salariés, en lien avec leurs aspirations, l’expression de demandes de formation relève plutôt des pratiques d’entreprises.
This report provides interesting insights into how the certification process quality is ensured in IVET. It explores national approaches in 12 European countries and identifies eight key quality features, which guarantee that the certification processes are consistent across a VET system. This publication discusses key messages and recommendations for policy-makers, bodies involved in certification, and practitioners, and hopes to stimulate further debate, research and action in Europe.
Despite the strong interest in skills mismatch, an internationally agreed methodology to measure the phenomenon is lacking and methodological discussions are on-going. At the same time, matching of jobs and skills is a major factor shaping labour market outcomes, and monitoring of levels and trends of skills mismatch is important to inform labour market policy development including labour migration and integration policy.
This research paper examines the role played by learning outcomes approaches in pedagogical change in initial vocational education and training (VET) in 15 EU Member States.
This paper provides more insight into the relevance of the assumption of human capital theory that the productivity of job-related training is driven by the improvement of workers’ skills. We analyse the extent to which training and informal learning on the job are related to employee skill development and consider the heterogeneity of this relationship with respect to workers’ skill mismatch at job entry. This complementarity between training and informal learning is related to a significant additional improvement of workers’ skills. The skill development of workers who were initially underskilled for their job seems to benefit the most from both training and informal learning, whereas the skill development of those who were initially overskilled benefits the least. Work-related learning investments in the latter group seem to be more functional in offsetting skill depreciation than in fostering skill accumulation.
Committed and competent teachers and trainers are crucial to ensuring the quality and labour market relevance of learning, both in VET schools/centres and in companies, and whether in classrooms, in workshops, in labs and simulated learning environments, or at the workplace.
This report contains more than 30 detailed structural indicators, up-to-date figures, definitions, country notes and a short analysis of recent key policy developments and reforms in five areas: early childhood education and care, achievement in basic skills, early leaving from education and training, higher education and graduate employability.
The report provides background and complementary information on a number of structural indicators examined in the Education and Training Monitor 2016 which describes the evolution of Europe’s education and training systems based on a wide range of evidence. It follows the progress made by the EU Members States towards achieving the targets set by the Europe 2020 and the Education and Training 2020 reform processes.
Ce document propose d’explorer les sources d’information pertinentes sur la reconnaissance et la validation des compétences, particulièrement les compétences non-formelles et informelles, facteurs de la mobilité et de l’employabilité des personnes en Europe.
This study investigates the role of modules and units in vocational education and training (VET) in 15 EU countries and aims to determine how these structures fit in the wider VET systems.It provides a comparative analysis of different modularisation and unitisation practices and the rationale behind their implementation, and an outline of the different national contexts in which modular and unitised structures developed over time.
The global crisis has increased unemployment in the EU to unprecedented levels, yet many employers claim they have difficulties finding skilled workers to fill their vacancies. This report shows that most vacancy bottlenecks arise because of factors other than general skill deficits, including job offers of poor quality.
Quality assurance and evidence-based policies and practices to support lifelong guidance systems and services operate in six broad contexts: schools, vocational education and training (VET), higher education, adult education, employment settings, and social inclusion initiatives. This Framework is designed to build upon earlier work undertaken by the ELGPN (2009/10) and to extend this further in the form of a common set of quality elements, criteria, indicators and possible sources of data that can be utilised and further developed by policy-makers and other interested parties to jointly assess progress being made in relation to these six broad areas of lifelong guidance policy development.
A ‘Spotlight on VET’ for each EU Member State, Iceland and Norway. Spotlights present essential VET features of all 30 countries using comparable system charts based on each country’s VET programmes, rather than schools or institutions
The inventory showcases 86 countries and examines how learning outcomes of all types of learning – formal, non-formal and informal – are being integrated into regional and national qualifications frameworks.
Impact of national qualification frameworks (NQFs), links between NQFs and validation systems, and the development of world reference levels of learning outcomes.
An inventory of 85 NQFs and seven regional frameworks.