A guide which explains the benefits of apprenticeships for your workforce, and how the apprenticeship levy and public sector target apply to schools.
A guide which explains the benefits of apprenticeships for your workforce, and how the apprenticeship levy and public sector target apply to schools.
This report identifies and discusses five key themes that present challenges and opportunities for young people in Europe in the context of the future of work: skills, access to social protection, workers’ rights and wellbeing, just transition and environmental concerns, and equality.
A guide for young people to design a work+learn path that provides the skills and income they need to achieve their life goals. The toolkit draws from 60 innovative young people from around the world who employ a variety of skills, strategies, and non-tradtional learning methods to build the future they want for themselves.
All too often, the full potential of young people is not realized because they do not have access to productive and decent jobs. Although they are an asset, many young people face high levels of economic and social uncertainty. A difficult transition into the world of work has long-lasting consequences not only for youth but also for their families and communities.
Africa’s youth is coming of age rapidly, but job growth on the continent isn’t keeping up. The result: financial insecurity and, in some cases, a turn towards insurgent groups.
While there is little consensus about the “future of work”, one thing is certain – young people are at the coalface. Young workers experience insufficient opportunities for work experience, a mismatch between work and education, a lack of career management skills and scant entry-level jobs.
By 2030, automation, globalisation and flexibility will change what we do in every job. To prepare young people for this future we must urgently shift our understanding of what it will mean to be smart in the New Work Order.
A trade apprenticeship is how you gain the knowledge and skills you need for a career in your trade. Most apprenticeships take about four years to complete. You’ll spend approximately six to eight weeks per year in the classroom or shop learning from an instructor. The rest of the year, you’ll earn while you learn, working on a job site alongside experienced tradespeople and getting paid to do it.
What difference does it make when employers work with education and training providers? How can employer engagement best be delivered?
Research for Practice: Papers
Presentations and Videos
The objective of this report is to assess the impact of the career guidance services provided throughout the past years on enhancing the employability of technical secondary school graduates, their employment status, and their perception of the labour market and career opportunities.
Yemen. The demand for, and impact of, youth internships: evidence from a randomized experiment in Yemen
This paper evaluates a youth internship program in Yemen. We examine the demand for the program and find an oversupply of graduates in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics and a relative undersupply of graduates in marketing and business. Conditional on the types of graduates firms were looking to hire, applicants were then randomly chosen for the program. Receiving an internship resulted in an almost doubling of work experience in 2014 and a 73 % increase in income. A follow-up survey shows that internship recipients had better employment outcomes than the control group in the first 5 months after the program.
Making youth entrepreneurship a viable path: how can TVET institutions help promote entrepreneurship
Evidence shows that entrepreneurship interventions can effectively boost employment and earnings among young people, most notably in developing countries. Comprehensive designs that combine business training with access to finance and business advisory services have shown particular success. The evidence is yet limited about what works to help sustain and grow youth-owned businesses in the long-run as well as effective programme designs to support young entrepreneurs in developed economies.
This paper aims to provide a broad overview of the four major components of career pathways. It highlights the role of industry-based certifications and internships in the United States, examining the ethical question of whether internships are exploitative. Finally, it explains some of the advantages and disadvantages of the U.S. education and training system, and potential reforms that enhance its effectiveness at preparing young adults for the labor market.
The virtual conference took place from 18 to 29 July 2016 on the UNEVOC TVeT Forum. The virtual conference sought to collect input from the wider technical and vocational education and training community about the role of TVET in promoting entrepreneurship.
Argentina and South Africa. Understanding Barriers to Accessing Skills Development and Employment for Youth : Synthesis Report
The studies analysed three main issues: (1) the quality of the productive activities that youngster get, such as jobs, employment, volunteering, and learnerships; (2) policies regarding work preparation and deployment, including the conceptual approaches, guidelines and designs of implementation, their similarities, and contradictions; and (3) youth opportunities in the construction and wine production sectors. Emphasis was placed on knowledge of the relationships between the various actors within society, state, non-state, public and private national and international institutions.
We study the effect of a job training program for low income youth in Cordoba, Argentina. The program included life-skills and vocational training, as well as internships with private sector employers. The results indicate sizable gains of about 8 percentage points in formal employment in the short term (about 32% higher than the control group), although these effects dissipate in the medium and in the long term. Contrary to previous results for similar programs in the region, the effects are substantially larger for men, although they also seem to fade in the long run. Program participants also exhibit earnings about 40% higher than those in the control group, and an analysis of bounds indicates that these gains result from both higher employment levels and higher wages.
In countries where vocational pathways account for a large share of education and training, rates of early school leaving are below the EU target for 2020 (10%). Conversely, in countries where VET lags behind, the dropout rate is higher than 10%; in some cases, significantly so.
Briefing note available in Spanish, German, Greek, English, French, Italian, Lithuanian, Polish and Portuguese.
The shortages of entrepreneurial skills have lowered search effectiveness of potential young entrepreneurs and the rate of youth start-ups. Our paper contributes to closing a gap in the entrepreneurship and development literature with a model of costly firm creation and skill differences between young and adult entrepreneurs. The model shows that for young entrepreneurs facing high costs of searching for business opportunities, support for training is more effective in stimulating productive start-ups than subsidies. The case for interventions targeted at youth rises in societies with high costs of youth unemployment. We test the role of skills and training for productive youth entrepreneurship on data from a recent survey of entrepreneurs in Swaziland.
European Alliance for Apprenticeships: companies and organisations commit to making 140 000 apprenticeships available to young people
The fight against youth unemployment is a top priority for the European Commission. Good quality apprenticeships help young people to acquire the skills and key competences necessary to be successful on the labour market. Today more than forty companies and other organisations have joined the European Alliance for Apprenticeships, coordinated by the European Commission, and committed to providing more and better apprenticeships for young people. The companies will make a total of 140 000 apprenticeships and training opportunities available to young people. The European Commission is committed to strengthening the supply, quality and image of apprenticeships.
The new pledges were signed in Riga during a meeting of Ministers in charge of vocational education and training, the European social partners and the Commission, organised by the Latvian Presidency.
Related European Alliance for Apprenticeships
FAQ. Frequently asked questions: European Alliance for Apprenticeships
The Riga Declaration
Over 40 delegations participated in the meeting of Ministers in charge of Vocational Education and Training (VET), in Riga on 22 June 2015. The goal of the event was to address workforce challenges, such as labour shortages and skills mismatches, that Europe is likely to face in the future.
This brief is intended to allay concerns about perceived barriers to young people’s access to workplaces and to highlight the successes of employers who have opened their doors to high school students. The brief profiles employers who have found ways to provide young people with meaningful work experiences. These case studies highlight the ways that these employers have managed the logistics of work-based learning and explain the benefits of doing so for employers.
Canada. Career decision-making patterns of Canadian youth and associated postsecondary educational outcomes, 2000 to 2010
Career decision-making for the majority of Canadian youth is an on-going process, occurring throughout adolescence and typically lasting well into adulthood. As well, all those who showed consistency in their career expectations at some point were more likely to complete postsecondary education at the Bachelor degree level or higher at age 25, compared with the 25-year-olds still undecided on a career path.
En français. Canada. Tendances liées au choix de carrière des jeunes Canadiens et les études postsecondaires qui y sont associées, 2000 à 2010
60% of young people in developing regions are either unemployed, not studying, or engaged in irregular employment. Is migration the solution?
The social and economic well-being of young people currently generates a lot of interest. Are young people different from previous generations? Do they experience more difficulties in the labour market? Are some doing better than others?
Using a specific micro-dataset with information on working histories, we analyse the labour market entry of Spanish youths who have completed vocational education. According to the education system, young people can enter the labour market with vocational high school (upper secondary education) or with vocational college (tertiary education). Both present a period of workplace training, although, as they belong two distinct schooling levels, they have different entry requirements.
New grads face demands for up to five years experience to enter the labour market. How a lack of on-the-job training is hurting young workers.
Countries with strong vocational education show lower youth unemployment rates.
The institution of internships is a perfect illustration of how 20-somethings are trying to cope in an economy that has been gamed against them. Internships are no longer about trading one’s time for mentorship and opportunity. They’ve become the new serfdom.
Australia. Building foundations for occupations or one-way tickets to low skilled jobs? How effective is VET in Schools?
Study of models of VETiS to analyse the capacity of VETiS to play an effective role in youth transitions. The discussion of the efficacy of VETiS for young people is centred around three key themes: the contested purpose of VETiS; the uneasy fit of VETiS within structures of senior secondary education; and the complexity of the inherently cross-sectoral nature of VETiS delivery.
Two new projects will support entrepreneurship and access to microfinance for disadvantaged youth in Morocco. The grants totaling US$11.01 million are sponsored by the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Transition Fund.
Companies say too many applicants just don’t have the right skills. Partnerships between employers and community colleges are looking to fix that.
Study to identify effective practice in vocational learning and employability skills provision in men’s prisons and Young Offender Institutions.
Highlights: In Niger, the lack of job opportunities for youth is a contributing factor to social instability. The World Bank has recently launched a program focused on vocation training for youth. 11,000 young people will be trained so that they can find jobs in emerging sectors such as public works, agriculture, and tourism.
En français. Niger. Accompagner l’insertion socioprofessionnelle des jeunes au Niger : état des lieux et pistes d’action
Internships have long been part of the collegiate landscape, but their relationship to students’ future prospects has never been more direct. The article takes a look at the growing importance of international internships, offers tips on finding opportunities abroad, and what this cross-cultural work experience means for employers and students.
This paper provides a better understanding of VET around the world, dealing with three types of vocational systems: school-based education, a dual system in which school-based education is combined with firm-based training, and informal training. We first explore the motivation for these different types of training, before summarizing the institutional evidence, highlighting the key elements of each training system and discussing its main implementation strengths and challenges. We subsequently review the evidence on the effectiveness of VET versus general education and between the three VET systems. There are clear indications that VET is a valued alternative beyond the core of general education, while the dual system tends to be more effective than school-based VET. Informal training is effective, however relatively little is known of its relative strengths compared with other forms of vocational education.
West Africa. Vocational education, on-the-job training and labour market integration of young workers in urban West Africa
This paper describes the labour market integration of youth with regard to their level of formal education and to the type of vocational training they received. Overall, young workers without any formal VET are the more disadvantaged in terms of working conditions, while workers who benefited from a traditional apprenticeship in a small firm occupy an intermediate position. Apprenticeship training for young workers seems to be fairly prevalent in the informal sector, but the associated working conditions are bad, and kinship ties seem to be there a crucial channel fortraining access.
Jordan. Soft Skills or Hard Cash? The Impact of Training and Wage Subsidy Programs on Female Youth Employment in Jordan
This paper studies the impact of a randomized experiment in Jordan designed to assist female community college graduates find employment. The results suggest that wage subsidies can help increase employment in the short term, but are not a panacea for the problems of high urban female youth unemployment.
Why is it so difficult for governments and business to expand apprenticeships? Apprenticeship is one of the oldest social institutions, but in its contemporary incarnation, it has ambitious aims: to enhance general education and develop technical knowledge and skills to internationally competitive standards. Its implementation in complex modern labor markets requires high levels of trust and cooperation among public authorities, employers, and young people.
The study aimed to analyze the factors that have an impact on graduate employability, and to identify policies and strategies that have been put in place by universities to prepare and train their graduates to meet the demands of the workplace. The study also attempted to highlight the plight of graduates with degrees in information and communication technologies (ICT). Given the prevalence of technology in all aspects of our lives and the rapid development in the field, the capacity of universities to adapt and update their programmes and curriculum accordingly is of particular concern.
Resolution and conclusions of the 101st Session of the International Labour Conference, Geneva, 2012.
Overview of apprenticeship systems and issues – ILO contribution to the G20 Task Force on Employment
This paper reviews current apprenticeship programmes and practices in a limited number of countries. The evidence and lessons drawn from their experience provide both motivation and practical recommendations for making apprenticeship a more attractive and a more efficient pathway to productive and decent jobs for more young people.
Young people today are better educated than their counterparts in the 1970s, but the average time it takes to secure stable work is much longer. This paper explores the nature of young people’s transitions from school to work in the capital, with implications for national policy.
This report focuses on the ongoing concern over the number of young people not in education, employment or training (NEET). The report concludes that there are clear challenges associated with education, employment and training for all young people across England, and certain fundamental issues that contribute to a young person not participating in education, training or work.
Canada. International and National Factors Affecting School-To-Work Transition for At-RiskYouth in Canada: An Integrative Review
This paper provides an integrative review on the unemployment of at-risk youth and their transition to adulthood within Canadian and international contexts.
Linking education to skills, schooling to jobs, science to change: OECD Education Director Barbara Ischinger urges school systems to adopt innovative project-focused teaching .
This policy brief focuses on the opportunities made available in informal apprenticeship systems for improving skill provision in the informal economy to offer young people, especially in developing countries, ways to more productive and decent jobs.
– Technical and vocational education and training has grown fast in China, but challenges are apparent.
– The World Bank has helped China to develop vocational education for two decades, to make the system better meet the demands of students and the labor market.
– To support China’s shift from low-skilled, labor-intensive industries to more capital and skill-intensive ones, producing skilled workers via vocational education is critical.
The Kenyan voucher program shows that youth will take advantage of job training when the costs are covered through vouchers. And among those who do enroll, a majority stay with the program. This underscores the potential usefulness of including the private sector in public policy programs designed to boost demand for job training.