Volume 1: Adult population with potential for upskilling and reskilling
It estimates the magnitude of the low-skilled adult population according to a broader conceptualisation which goes beyond educational attainment levels, and considers digital skills, literacy and numeracy, as well as skill loss and skill obsolescence.
Volume 2: Analytical framework for developing coordinated and coherent approaches to upskilling pathways for low-skilled adults
The analytical framework is aimed at supporting policy-makers and stakeholders in designing and implementing sustainable, coordinated and coherent approaches to flexible and inclusive upskilling pathways.
Volume 1: Adult population with potential for upskilling and reskilling
This paper aims to inform the next steps in VET policy- making at EU level.
Apprenticeships for adults are one of the policy solutions to the need for supporting adults willing to train, while broadening the skills base of the working population across Europe.
In French. Europe. L’apprentissage pour adultes
This paper aims to inform the next steps in VET policy- making at EU level. It puts forward key challenges and opportunities for VET which have emerged from the intelligence, research and evidence collected over the years.
European VET varies between countries and is becoming more diverse in its programmes and qualifications and also expanding into higher levels, challenging the perception of higher education as exclusively academically oriented. In some countries, this reflects a step towards making lifelong learning a reality; in others, traditional VET is coming under pressure from declining youth cohorts and a growing preference for general education and training. Such negative developments can be seen as a forewarning of future challenges.
COVID-19. Europe. How are European countries managing apprenticeships to respond to the COVID-19 crisis?
ll the countries surveyed make efforts to keep up with the learning at school via distance learning and maintain the contracts with the companies. The aim is not to lose the year, although most countries are still working out how to deal with the final assessment (postponement being the worst-case scenario).
Distance learning however is piecemeal, and its use very much depends on the schools’ and teachers’ e-skills and availability, and on sectors. Its use ranges from mere communication/keeping in touch with students, to access to resources (videos etc.), to actual teaching. Some countries are considering virtual final assessment.
The European Union’s economic recovery has strengthened. But the economic downturn has accelerated long-term trends of globalisation and digitalisation that demand new skills. Forecasts of a smaller available workforce due to demographic trends are also becoming a reality. Vocational education and training (VET) can help tackle these issues, especially as part of a comprehensive policy approach.
En français. UE. Améliorer l’enseignement et la formation professionnels grâce aux données, aux analyses et aux échanges
This publication is a useful starting point for work by policy makers, social partners, experts and researchers. It provides orientation to a range of other actors involved in VET-related activities: VET providers, teachers and trainers; guidance, qualifications and validation staff; and other readers who want to familiarise themselves with VET systems across and beyond Europe.
The aim of the project is to improve our understanding of how VET is changing in the European Union countries (including Norway and Iceland).
The publication provides an update on the progress made in establishing and implementing national and regional qualifications frameworks around the world since 2017.
Building on detailed national case studies, the report demonstrates the expansion and diversification of vocationally oriented education and training offered at higher levels in European countries and the variations in how countries use the higher levels: there is evidence for strengthening vocational principles at higher levels in various ways as well as for strengthening academic principles.
See also Volumes 1 to 5
Analysing online job vacancies is a promising approach to identify emerging jobs and skill needs, as it offers rich real-time information about the skills employers seek. While modern technology has made it easier to process huge quantities of information, analysis needs to be based on sound expert judgement.
En français. Europe. Les compétences recherchées par les employeurs
Concise, clear and concrete pictures of countries’ vocational education and training systems. Building on individual country Spotlights, this publication brings together the main features and data of VET in the EU, Iceland and Norway.
An analysis of VET developments since 1995 has helped to outline a series of potential paths – scenarios – pointing towards plausible and consistent pictures of how VET can evolve by 2035, depending on today’s decisions and policy choices.
The survey covers the 28 Member States of the European Union and provides an unprecedented insight into EU citizens’ opinions on awareness, attractiveness, experience and effectiveness of vocational education and training in the EU. Given the heterogeneity and variety of VET within and across Member States, the scope of the survey is mainly focused on initial vocational training (IVET) at upper secondary level.
The European labour market is challenged by changes in the demographic composition of the labour force and by increasing work complexities and processes.
In a highly competitive global landscape, occupations are transformed, new jobs are created and the skills needed for the labour market are constantly changing. This publication explores national responses to globalisation in 15 countries and five economic sectors.
The aim of the paper is to identify and analyse patterns and trends in enrolment in upper secondary initial vocational education and training (IVET) in Europe over the period 1995 to 2015.
This handbook supports the transfer and adaptation of career development tools used in guidance, early school leaving prevention, employment services, youth centres and other organisations.
The 39 countries monitored (28 EU Member States, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Kosovo, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland and Turkey) are developing and implementing 43 national qualifications frameworks.
Compiling different data insights, the report highlights that skill mismatch is a complex, multidimensional and dynamic phenomenon. It calls on policy-makers to adopt a different mindset for tackling skill mismatch, focused on sustainable activation, continuous learning, job-task reengineering and promotion of higher-end product market/managerial practices.
Technological unemployment is a recurring theme, but joblessness in the digital age will depend on human, not artificial, intelligence.
En français. Humains, machines, robots et compétences
This thematic report provides an overview of validation monitoring of non-formal and informal learning across Europe.
This two-volume publication gives an update on the national qualification frameworks around the world. It provides information on national and regional developments as well as selected themes.
Volume 1: thematic chapters
Volume II: national and regional cases
Mainstreaming successful projects and initiatives into national policies and measures is the way to go if we want substantially to improve early leavers’ perspectives and keep learners at risk of dropping out in the education and training systems. Systematic impact evaluations conducive to potential upscaling and mainstreaming of measures need to:
-set targets against which performance can be evaluated;
-provide longitudinal data to capture change (most evaluations only give a static picture of results and outputs);
-provide comparisons with control groups or with similar measures.
This report provides interesting insights into how the certification process quality is ensured in IVET. It explores national approaches in 12 European countries and identifies eight key quality features, which guarantee that the certification processes are consistent across a VET system. This publication discusses key messages and recommendations for policy-makers, bodies involved in certification, and practitioners, and hopes to stimulate further debate, research and action in Europe.
This research paper examines the role played by learning outcomes approaches in pedagogical change in initial vocational education and training (VET) in 15 EU Member States.
Problems with recognition of skills and qualifications are an issue for those who are unable to prove these. Vocational education and training (VET) programmes can help connect migrants with the labour market and find jobs matching their skills and qualifications.
This study reviews recent policies and practices aiming to tackle unemployment through addressing skill mismatch in the EU-28 Member States. It examines skill mismatch policy instruments aimed at reducing unemployment as well as measures to prevent it.
On 25 March 1957, six European countries (Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) pledged to align their economic policies for the establishment of a common market, which would reduce socioeconomic differences across Europe.
Compendium of methodological guides on anticipation and matching of skill supply and demand.
Volume 1: Using labour market information
Volume 2: Developing skills foresights, scenarios and forecasts
Volume 3: Working at sector level
Volume 4: The role of employment service providers
Volume 5: How to develop and run an establishment skills survey
Volume 6: Carrying out tracer studies
This report draws both on literature review and an original collection of stories from biographical interviews of individuals in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, France, Italy, Poland and the UK.
The narrative accounts describe the wide variety of experiences with initial and further education. The analysis focuses on motivations for learning (or not) and the findings confirm that early negative experiences with schooling have a scarring effect inhibiting workers’ willingness to re-engage in education later in life. Nevertheless, many low-educated adults command a variety of skills, which they have developed in the work context, while the interest of the low-educated in education and training may be rekindled by making learning instrumental to improvement in their work situation.
Committed and competent teachers and trainers are crucial to ensuring the quality and labour market relevance of learning, both in VET schools/centres and in companies, and whether in classrooms, in workshops, in labs and simulated learning environments, or at the workplace.
The handbook is meant to guide VET providers through a quality journey, based on the PDCA (plan-do-check-act/review) cycle, which underlies any quality management system (QMS). The handbook’s guidelines, advice and practical examples are taken from 20 providers of initial, continuing or sector-based vocational training, all of which have successful and mature quality management in place.
Projections for skill supply and demand in the European Union (EU) foresee a gradual return to job growth and an older, but better qualified workforce. The latest forecast extends the time horizon from 2020 to 2025 and differs from its predecessors in seeing demand for high-level qualifications speeding up.
In the coming years, VET teachers and trainers will be required to help shape quick and flexible responses to emerging needs, related both to the integration of thousands of refugees and migrants into the labour market and to the need to develop basic, digital and entrepreneurial skills.
This study investigates the role of modules and units in vocational education and training (VET) in 15 EU countries and aims to determine how these structures fit in the wider VET systems.It provides a comparative analysis of different modularisation and unitisation practices and the rationale behind their implementation, and an outline of the different national contexts in which modular and unitised structures developed over time.
The global crisis has increased unemployment in the EU to unprecedented levels, yet many employers claim they have difficulties finding skilled workers to fill their vacancies. This report shows that most vacancy bottlenecks arise because of factors other than general skill deficits, including job offers of poor quality.
A ‘Spotlight on VET’ for each EU Member State, Iceland and Norway. Spotlights present essential VET features of all 30 countries using comparable system charts based on each country’s VET programmes, rather than schools or institutions
The inventory showcases 86 countries and examines how learning outcomes of all types of learning – formal, non-formal and informal – are being integrated into regional and national qualifications frameworks.
Impact of national qualification frameworks (NQFs), links between NQFs and validation systems, and the development of world reference levels of learning outcomes.
An inventory of 85 NQFs and seven regional frameworks.
VET-Bib contains over 85 000 bibliographic references, the largest collection of literature on vocational education, training, skills development and employability in the European Union.
Europe. Policy handbook. Access to and participation in continuous vocational education and training (CVET) in Europe
This handbook aims to provide policy guidance on CVET on the basis of examples of effective practices, a discussion of success factors and a demonstration of the benefits of investing in it.
This report analyses VET governance structures and financing arrangements in Spain, Italy, Latvia, Portugal and Sweden in view of developing and expanding apprenticeship.
Europe. On the way to 2020: data for vocational education and training policies – Country statistical overviews
In this report, Cedefop has selected a set of 33 indicators to quantify some key aspects of VET and lifelong learning. The selection is based on the indicators’ policy relevance and their importance in achieving the Europe 2020 objectives. This publication should be regarded as a valuable tool to help policy-makers better understand and assess VET developments in each country.
Improvements in workforce skills are essential for European countries to attain higher economic growth and to compete effectively on product markets. Literature indicates a positive relationship between levels of education and productivity growth; this report builds on and expands this body of research in two ways. First, it investigates the differential impact of various skill types – higher (academic), upper-intermediate vocational, lower-intermediate vocational, lower-intermediate general, and low – on labour productivity. Then it accounts for the stock of uncertified skills (i.e. those built through training). The analysis is carried out in six EU Member States – Denmark, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK – representing different modes of VET (and for which data were available). The analysis suggests that general and vocational skills complement each other and that the effect of (certified) skills on productivity is stronger when certified skills are reinforced by training.
This study investigates the role of modules and units in vocational education and training (VET) in 15 EU countries and aims to determine how these structures fit in the wider VET systems.
It provides a comparative analysis of different modularisation and unitisation practices and the rationale behind their implementation, and an outline of the different national contexts in which modular and unitised structures developed over time. It also offers a close-up of three different approaches to modularisation in one occupational area, in Germany, the Netherlands and Scotland.
More and more opportunities exist for adults to learn, including in work-based settings; enterprises provide training to ensure that they have all the skills and competences needed for competitiveness and growth. One out of five employees in SMEs is involved in facilitating learning of others while they are less likely to participate in training than their counterparts in large enterprises. What is their role? How many are they? What qualifications and competences do they need and have? What are their tasks and activities? How do they update their competences? How do their employers support them? Are they aware of and do they benefit from publicly supported programmes? Based on in-company trainers’ and employers’ responses from 254 SMEs, this publication provides some answers to these questions.