Helping countries design and implement more effective TVET policies to improve productivity, economic prosperity, sustainable development and employment opportunities.
Helping countries design and implement more effective TVET policies to improve productivity, economic prosperity, sustainable development and employment opportunities.
Understanding the return on investment (ROI) in VET provides governments with information on the performance of the system and justification for public expenditure. This report introduces a conceptual framework for defining what is involved in the ROI calculation and provides a guide to what type of information and data are required to calculate the returns to training for government, employers and individuals.
This report provides a comparative analysis of case studies focusing on improving skills use in the workplace across eight countries.
Regional study to examine quality assurance mechanisms supporting the qualification process in 13 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. This report provides information to help Member States optimize quality assurance mechanisms for TVET qualifications, and respond more effectively to both national and international needs and developments.
The analysis highlights the failings in the UK’s skills system and offers thoughts and recommendations on how we can improve our performance.
The present report examines how governments use financial incentives to promote a better alignment between labour market needs, on the one hand, and the supply of skills, on the other. In doing so, it identifies: i) innovative models that countries may be interested in learning from; ii) best practice in the design and use of financial incentives; iii) framework conditions for their effective use; and iv) limitations and risks in the use of financial incentives.
See also Video. Q&A Webinar – Tax incentives to invest in education and skills
This public session will discuss the financial incentives to invest in education, with a particular focus on how tax systems impact skills development in OECD countries.
This report summarizes the evidence collected from four lines of evidence prepared specifically for Phase 1 of this evaluation (see Appendix 2) and focuses on questions related to program relevance, the use of the loans, administrative costs, and program delivery and awareness. It is important to emphasize that this is the first phase of a two-phase evaluation (Phase 2 of the evaluation, which will focus on program impacts and loan repayment outcomes, will be completed in March 2020). Thus, some of the findings presented in this report can only provide preliminary evidence.
En français. Canada. Phase 1 de l’évaluation du prêt canadien aux apprentis
Canada/Ontario. The labour market shift: Training a highly skilled and resilient workforce in Ontario
The report examines Ontario’s changing labour market and skills, employer-driven training, and government skills training programs. Ontario’s labour market has changed. For Ontarians to remain resilient in face of this change, they must be equipped with skills that are transferable across occupations and sectors.
Sub-Saharan Africa. Compilation of the main indicators for analysis of the relationship between education/training and employment
The report was elaborated with the aim to identify and summarize information about and definitions for indicators relating to the labor market and education sectors.
En français. Recueil des principaux indicateurs d’analyse des relations éducation formation-emploi
Australia. Continuity and change: employers’ training practices and partnerships with training providers
This study provides a comprehensive picture of the way in which employers navigate the Australian training system and establish partnerships with registered training organisations. In terms of evolution over the last 20 years three key factors emerge:
– While the take-up of nationally recognised training by employers has not increased substantially, this type of training is being used in different ways.
– The nature of the partnerships between RTOs and employers has changed, from a relationship based on fee-for-service provision to one based on long-term mutual collaboration.
– A change in the role of the training function and training staff in organisations has been observed.
A Roadmap for Canada’s trucking employers to recruit and retain millennials.
Sub-Saharan Africa. The Future of Jobs and Skills in Africa: Preparing the Region for the Fourth Industrial Revolution
With more than 60% of its population under the age of 25, sub-Saharan Africa is already the world’s youngest region today – and, by 2030, will be home to more than one-quarter of the world’s under-25 population. This document aims to serve as a practical guide for leaders from business, government, civil society and the education sector, and finds that the region’s capacity to adapt to the requirements of future jobs leaves little space for complacency. While a number of African economies are relatively under-exposed to labour market disruptions at present, this picture is changing rapidly.
Over the next decade, the future of work will be shaped by a completely new force: the “Intelligence Revolution”. It will be driven not by incremental automation in manufacturing processes but by exponential change based on machine learning, virtually free data storage and communication, and ever-increasing computational power that rivals some human capabilities.
En français. Canada. La révolution de l’intelligence. L’avenir de la main-d’œuvre canadienne
In the past, manufacturing created jobs and increased productivity in developing countries. But technology is improving, trade is slowing, and industrial automation may mean fewer jobs in the future. To continue advancing, developing countries must adapt. But how?
This report presents a short summary of the International Labour Organization’s (ILO’s) Global Dialogue on “The Future of Work We Want”, which brought together leading economists, academics and representatives from governments and social partners (employers’ and workers’ organizations) to discuss the profound changes sweeping through the world of work.
En français. L’avenir du travail que nous voulons: un dialogue global
In an era marked by rapid advances in automation and artificial intelligence, new research assesses the jobs lost and jobs gained under different scenarios through 2030.
This report presents evidence on the expanding scope of automation. After three decades of a secular decline in middle-income jobs, the bulk of low-skilled and low-income workers are now for the first time susceptible to computerization. Meanwhile, skilled jobs remain relatively resilient to recent trends in technology. In particular, workers with extraordinary social and creative skills will still remain in the workforce in 2030.
The study challenges a culture of risk aversion that holds back technology adoption, innovation, and growth; this matters particularly to countries like the US and the UK, which already face structural productivity problems.
By identifying the bundles of skills, abilities, and knowledge that are most likely to be important in the future, as well as the skills investments that will have the greatest impact on occupational demand, this report provides information that educators, businesses, and governments can use for strategic and policy-making purposes to better prepare us for the future.
The UK economy is set to undergo significant change in the coming years. The impact of rapidly advancing technology, an ageing population and exiting the EU will leave our economy looking very different by 2030.
This synthesis report offers insights into issues and challenges in assuring the quality of qualifications in TVET in 13 Asia-Pacific countries. It identifies common areas for improvement and provides recommendations that could lead to enhancements of the quality assurance systems in the region.
This report examines the group of young people aged 15–24 that are not engaged in education, employment or training (NEET).
The current university system of credentials, accreditation and transcripts does not serve most undergraduate students well. While the current system does an excellent job documenting students’ knowledge of content, it provides neither students nor potential employers with an overview of the skills they have developed while studying.
En français. Canada. Habiletés, compétences et titres d’études
The review examines the numerous ways that informal learning occurs, the benefits and drawbacks of these different forms of informal learning, and the implications for equity. The review also discusses the potential ways that informal learning can be measured and recognized so that it translates more directly into value for the learner.
Technological trends—while always a critical driver of the economy—are reshaping Canada’s workforce. With a large number of jobs at risk of automation in the near future, including those held by some of the most vulnerable segments of Canada’s population, youth are facing higher skill and experience requirements than ever before. As a result, Canadian youth joining the labour market must come equipped with a broad suite of technical and soft skills to succeed.
VET has largely been ignored as a player in the innovation system but with its ties to industry it has the ability to help translate new knowledge into the workforce. This research looks at how applied research can help VET to become more active in the innovation system. The report also explores the capabilities that are needed and how registered training organisations and practitioners can build off their existing connections and skills.
Work-based learning (WBL) in Vocational education and training (VET) provides important benefits, by increasing employability and smoother school to work transition. It contributes to reducing skill shortages and gaps, reduces youth unemployment, increases entrepreneurship and innovation and finally has the potential to foster social inclusion. The aim of the study was to provide the Education and Training 2020 Working Group on VET (2016-2018) with findings on three key areas:
– governance arrangements in place for professionals involved in WBL;
– professionalisation arrangements for those professionals; and finally,
– in what way cooperation between schools and companies is arranged, focusing on the quality of the professionals involved.
This report provides a systematization of the discussions at the Regional Meeting of Ministers of Education of Latin America and the Caribbean held 24‐25 January 2017 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. This was the first ministerial meeting to be organized within the framework of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in particular SDG 4 – “Ensure inclusive and quality education for all and promote lifelong learning”.
This report maps out how employment is likely to change in the future – including the implications for skills – and anticipates a number of new occupations.
VET has largely been ignored as a player in the innovation system but with its ties to industry it has the ability to help translate new knowledge into the workforce. Through discussions with VET institutions, applied research organisations, industry bodies and policy-makers, this research looks at how applied research can help VET to become more active in the innovation system. The report also explores the capabilities that are needed and how registered training organisations and practitioners can build off their existing connections and skills.
Australia. Using DACUM Job Analysis to Build a Skilled Workforce Capable of Meeting Industry Needs, 2017
The knowledge and insight gained from DACUM job analysis can be applied to develop strategies for conducting industry needs assessment and improving curriculum and training packages for Australian industry sectors. In addition, the industry needs assessment component of DACUM analysis can be used to (i) identify the occupational areas which have enough employment opportunities to attract students, (ii) investigate the learning gaps which can jeopardise an individual’s employment opportunity, and (iii) develop innovative instructional methods that bridge the gaps between what is offered in the classroom and what is going on in the real work of work. Finally, DACUM process can be repeated to identify future and emerging industry skills requirements and develop the required curriculum and can become a continuous improvement mechanism for the training packages.
This report on the future of work in the automotive sector focuses on the major changes facing the sector. These include: the rise of emerging economies, new mobilities, the “greening” of the product, and the digitalization of production. This is in order to identify the main challenges for employment and industrial relations and to assess the institutional and organizational solutions adopted by the various stakeholders to confront these developments. The aim is twofold – i) to develop robust scenarios on the basis of current trends; ii) to identify levers of action for embarking upon alternative paths – whenever desirable and feasible – to help create jobs, improve their quality and foster social dialogue.
The report calls for states to help students, their families, and employers unpack the meaning of postsecondary credentials and assess their value in the labor market.
Progress report on the preparation of the Draft Global Convention on the Recognition of Higher Education Qualifications
The main aim of adopting a Global Convention is to establish an international normative instrument on recognition with global scope.
En français. Rapport sur l’élaboration de la Convention mondiale sur la reconnaissance des qualifications de l’enseignement supérieur
Canada/Ontario. Student Success ePortfolio: Student, Faculty and Employer Perspectives on the Value of ePortfolios in Assessing the Development of Essential Employability Skills
By assembling a digital record of a student’s skills and academic accomplishments, ePortfolios have the potential to improve educators’ assessments of students and the ability of students to clearly communicate and connect with employers. But are they effective?
En français. Canada/Ontario. Portfolio électronique de la réussite scolaire : points de vue des élèves, des enseignants et des employeurs sur l’intérêt que présentent les portfolios électroniques pour évaluer l’acquisition des résultats d’apprentissage relatifs à l’employabilité
We depend on our young people to build and support the economy for the next generation. When changes to the nature of work and social conditions make it difficult for them to gain a solid foothold, the very foundation of our society is threatened.
On the surface, there may not appear to be a problem when it comes to the labour market participation of Canada’s youth, a population of 6.8 million people between the ages of 15 and 29. Among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, Canadian youth are more likely to be employed than their peers. At the same time, the labour landscape is being redefined at a dizzying pace. New and emerging technologies, demographic change and globalization are profoundly changing the way work gets done, and what the jobs of the future will require of our youngest workers.
En français. Canada. 13 voies pour moderniser l’emploi des jeunes au Canada
This report identifies effective strategies to tackle skills imbalances, based on five country-specific policy notes for France, Italy, Spain, South Africa and the United Kingdom.
Technological trends—while always a critical driver of the economy—are reshaping Canada’s workforce. With a large number of jobs at risk of automation in the near future, including those held by some of the most vulnerable segments of Canada’s population, youth are facing higher skill and experience requirements than ever before. As a result, Canadian
youth joining the labour market must come equipped with a broad suite of technical and soft skills to succeed.
To ensure Canada’s youth are adequately prepared for this new economic reality, new models that focus on both improving youth employment outcomes and building a stronger talent pipeline need to be explored.
Despite the strong interest in skills mismatch, an internationally agreed methodology to measure the phenomenon is lacking and methodological discussions are on-going. At the same time, matching of jobs and skills is a major factor shaping labour market outcomes, and monitoring of levels and trends of skills mismatch is important to inform labour market policy development including labour migration and integration policy.
The skills gaps in Ontario continue and are becoming more complex. It has a direct impact on the ability of firms and organizations to compete and impairs their productivity.
Skills represent a key driver of development and growth in the Philippines. Educational attainment of the Filipino population has steadily increased in recent decades, but while the country is regionally successful within Southeast Asia, it has yet to reach the standards of more developed countries.
The impact of automation and digitalisation on the world of work is likely to increase further in the years to come. The study discusses the associated effects on the Swiss labour force and highlights what competencies will be particularly sought after in the future. The study also looks into how the education system and companies should respond to these changes.
Australia’s education system is not preparing students for twenty-first century success. Young Australians are studying for longer than ever before but are disengaged and struggling to find permanent jobs. Young people entering technology-rich, global, competitive job markets need different skill sets to what our education system has traditionally valued.
England. Tech transitions: UTCs, studio schools, and technical and vocational education in England’s schools
Supporters of England’s growing range of institutions for 14–19-year-olds – mainly university technical colleges (UTCs) and studio schools – are increasingly being challenged by those who argue that, on the whole, they are not working for pupils. We explore developments in this landscape, the consequences for the wider education system and assess the performance of these institutions.
Thirty-five states have policies in place that support apprenticeship and other kinds of work-based learning. The scan explains each type of work-based learning policy, identifies which states have work-based learning policies in place (including descriptions of those policies) and reveals which states have opportunities to adopt new policies.
Skilled technical occupations—defined as occupations that require a high level of knowledge in a technical domain but do not require a bachelor’s degree for entry—are a key component of the U.S. economy. In response to globalization and advances in science and technology, American firms are demanding workers with greater proficiency in literacy and numeracy, as well as strong interpersonal, technical, and problem-solving skills. However, employer surveys and industry and government reports have raised concerns that the nation may not have an adequate supply of skilled technical workers to achieve its competitiveness and economic growth objectives.
After years of elevated unemployment and depressed wages, young graduates’ economic prospects have finally begun to brighten. Members of the Class of 2017 have better job prospects than their peers who graduated in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Unemployment rates for young high school and young college graduates have returned to within one percentage point of their pre-recession levels and wages are continuing to slowly recover. While young high school graduates on average are still paid less than they were in 2007 (adjusted for inflation), the average wages of young college graduates have finally surpassed the 2007 level.