This discussion paper aims to highlight the reasons why in developing and emerging economies, TVET in agriculture differs to TVET in other sectors, and explores seven key challenges faced in implementing effective agricultural TVET programmes.
This discussion paper aims to highlight the reasons why in developing and emerging economies, TVET in agriculture differs to TVET in other sectors, and explores seven key challenges faced in implementing effective agricultural TVET programmes.
Communities hold technical and vocational training in disdain and this has resulted in an influx of individuals who are enrolled in universities ultimately resulting in high unemployment. The study sought to understand why communities are shunning technical and vocational training with the ultimate aim of finding lasting solutions to building confidence in technical and vocational training.
In developing countries and emerging markets, a large share of the people work in the informal economy. Women are even more likely to do so than men. From a developmental viewpoint, relevant questions include: How can informal work be made more decent and productive? And how can the transition to formal employment be facilitated?
In the past, manufacturing created jobs and increased productivity in developing countries. But technology is improving, trade is slowing, and industrial automation may mean fewer jobs in the future. To continue advancing, developing countries must adapt. But how?
Creating access to technical and vocational education for young people with disabilities: I am Employable
80% to 90% of young people with disabilities in low-income countries are unemployed. The report has new findings on inclusive vocational training.
There is considerable concern regarding the prospective development of employment levels and job types in the future. The paper tries to highlight major trends shaping the world of work in developed economies with the aim of giving a realistic account of probable developments and the contributions of different driving forces, importantly focusing on the role of actors such as policy makers, firms and individuals. While it is true that the future of work poses considerable challenges to actors at different levels, there is no need to be particularly worried.
Sierra Leone. They got mad skills : the effects of training on youth employability and resilience to the Ebola shock
This paper discusses a randomized control trial to measure the short-term impacts of a skills intervention among urban youth in Sierra Leone at the onset of the Ebola crisis. The intervention provided (i) technical skills training, plus on-the-job training; (ii) business skills training; and (iii) a mix of (i) and (ii). All groups received stipends and literacy and numeracy training. The findings support evidence that combining cash injections and skills training can stimulate employment and entrepreneurship.
Sub-Saharan Africa. Approaches and impact of non-academic research capacity strengthening training models in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review
Research is essential to identify and prioritize health needs and to develop appropriate strategies to improve health outcomes. In the last decade, non-academic research capacity strengthening trainings in sub-Saharan Africa, coupled with developing research infrastructure and the provision of individual mentorship support, has been used to build health worker skills. The objectives of this review are to describe different training approaches to research capacity strengthening in sub-Saharan Africa outside academic programs, assess methods used to evaluate research capacity strengthening activities, and learn about the challenges facing research capacity strengthening and the strategies/innovations required to overcome them.
A key challenge for developing countries is to generate more and better employment opportunities, ensuring that all parts of the population are reached. This paper discusses what this means in practice, particularly in the context of economic structural transformation. Looking at the quality, quantity and access to jobs in developing countries, the paper highlights the extent of progress in sectoral labour demand and supply, particularly in relation to structural change.
The Guide is designed to raise general awareness amongst policy makers in developing countries as to how Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) might address their concerns and priorities, particularly in terms of access to affordable quality higher education and preparation of secondary school leavers for academic as well as vocational education and training.
One of the most effective ways to fight poverty and boost economic development is through job creation. About 200 million people are unemployed globally. As a result of demographic shifts, there will be a need for 600 million new jobs over the next 15 years to keep current employment rates stable, particularly in Africa and Asia. At the same time, many companies cannot fill positions because applicants lack the right skills, especially in developing countries.
Nicaragua. Demand versus returns ? pro-poor targeting of business grants and vocational skills training
The authors analyze an unusual experiment with very high take-up of business grants and vocational skills training, randomly assigned among nearly all households in selected poor rural communities in Nicaragua. On average, the interventions resulted in increased participation in non-agricultural employment and higher income from related activities. The paper investigates whether targeting could have resulted in higher returns by analyzing heterogeneity in impacts by stated baseline demand, prior participation in non-agricultural activities, and a wide range of complementary asset endowments. The results reveal little heterogeneity along observed baseline characteristics. However, the poorest households are more likely to enter and have higher profits in non-agricultural self-employment, while less poor households assigned to the training have higher non-agricultural wages.
This policy report aims to address two priority issues that have emerged for African policy makers: (a) the growing pressure to provide universal secondary education and the resultant trade-off between expansion, quality, and relevance; and (b) the shorter-term imperative of out-of-school youth. In both cases, it is fundamental to better understand the drivers and constraints to transitions between each level of education, as well as the demand for secondary education and skills in the current and developing labor market. This report and its underpinning diagnostic work aim to deepen the analytical base and inform operational programs, policy dialogue, and development projects designed to tackle the out-of-school youth challenge.
Ethiopia. The Impact of Globalization and Technology Transfer on Manufacturing Employment and Skills in Ethiopia
There is a dearth of research on the impact of technological change on employment in the context of least developed countries (LDCs) embarking on globalization, which enhances the prospect of direct technological imports or embodied technological transfer. Using a sample of 1,940 enterprises from Ethiopia over the period 1996-2004 and deploying System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM-SYS), this paper attempts to establish the nature of manufacturing employment in Ethiopia and the role played by trade and FDI in determining employment. The empirical results obtained lend support to globalization having a labour augmenting effect, increasing total manufacturing employment. The two-equation dynamic framework implemented to analyse enterprise-level employment trends by skill level provides some evidence of skill-bias specific to enterprises with higher share of foreign ownership and those that that are located in the vicinity of the capital city. Exporters are not found to benefit from “learning by exporting”.
The Road map, which was developed with the appreciable contribution of critical stakeholders such as ministries of health, education, public services and finance as well as universities and training institutions regulators, professional bodies, civil society and nongovernmental organizations, defines strategic directions and priority interventions to be implemented in the period 2012–2025.
En français. Afrique. Feuille de route pour augmenter les effectifs sanitaires : en vue d’une meilleure prestation de services de soins de santé dans la région africaine 2012–2025
This paper presents two medical schools, Makerere University College of Health Sciences and College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, which successfully implemented CBME [Competency-Based Medical Education]. The processes of curriculum revision are described and common themes are highlighted. Both schools used similar processes in developing their CBME curricula, with early and significant stakeholder involvement.
Africa. Transforming health professions’ education through in-country collaboration: examining the consortia among African medical schools catalyzed by the Medical Education Partnership Initiative
African medical schools have historically turned to northern partners for technical assistance and resources to strengthen their education and research programmes. In 2010, this paradigm shifted when the United States Government brought forward unprecedented resources to support African medical schools. The grant, entitled the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) triggered a number of south-south collaborations between medical schools in Africa. This paper examines the goals of these partnerships and their impact on medical education and health workforce planning.
The consortia described in this paper demonstrate a paradigm shift in the relationship between medical schools in four African countries. While schools in Africa have historically worked in silos, competing for limited resources, MEPI funding that was leveraged to form in-country partnerships has created a culture of collaboration, overriding the history of competition. The positive impact on the quality and efficiency of health workforce training suggests that future funding for global health education should prioritize such south-south collaborations.
Mozambique. The effect of pre-service training on post-graduation skill and knowledge retention among mid-level healthcare providers in Mozambique
Mozambique suffers from critical shortages of healthcare workers including non-physician clinicians, Tecnicos de Medicina Geral(TMGs), who are often senior clinicians in rural health centres. The Mozambique Ministry of Health and the International Training and Education Center for Health, University of Washington, Seattle, revised the national curriculum to improve TMG clinical knowledge and skills.
Although curriculum revision had limited effect, marginal improvements in the revised group show promise that these TMGs may have increased ability to synthesize clinical information. Weaknesses in curriculum and practicum implementation likely compromised the effect of curriculum revision. An improvement strategy that includes strengthened TMG training, greater attention to pre-service clinical practice, and post-graduation mentoring may be more advantageous than curriculum revision, alone, to improve care provided by TMGs.
Continuing medical education, increasingly termed continuing professional development (CPD), constitutes an important aspect of the educational life for any health care practitioner. In many high-resource countries, health care professions have licensure or certification requirements for ongoing CPD, increasing the odds that most providers will engage in these activities. Due to these requirements and the attendant well-financed interest from health care professionals, there exist a wealth of options for CPD within high-resource countries, touching on all aspects of medicine and provided in a huge range of formats.
India. Enhancing public health practice through a capacity-building educational programme: an evaluation
The Post-Graduate Diploma in Public Health Management, launched by the Govt. of India under the aegis of the National Rural Health Mission in 2008, aims to enhance the managerial capabilities of public health professionals to improve the public health system. The Govt. of India invested enormous resources into this programme and requested an evaluation to understand the current processes, assess the graduates’ work performance and identify areas for improvement.
A continuous mechanism for interaction and dialogue with the graduates during and after completion of the programme should be designed. This evaluation helped by providing inputs for refining the programme.
Sub-Saharan Africa. Maximizing the Impact of Training Initiatives for Health Professionals in Low-Income Countries: Frameworks, Challenges, and Best Practices
– Historically, the impact of many health professional training initiatives in low-income countries has been limited by narrow focus on a small set of diseases, inefficient utilization of donor funding, inadequate scale up, insufficient emphasis on the acquisition of practical skills, poor alignment with local priorities, and lack of coordination.
– Fortunately, several innovative training initiatives have emerged over the past five years in sub-Saharan Africa. This articles focuses on four initiatives funded by the United States government: the Medical Education Training Partnership Initiative (MEPI), the Nursing Training Partnership Initiative (NEPI), the Rwanda Human Resources for Health Program (HRH Program), and the Global Health Service Partnership (GHSP).
– The best practices adopted by these initiatives are: alignment to local priorities, country ownership, competency-based training, institutional capacity building, and the establishment of long-lasting partnerships with international stakeholders.
– Based on these best practices, we outline a framework for health professional training initiatives that can help better address the health workforce shortage in low-income countries.
In such resource-challenged settings, access to postgraduate medical education often is limited due to inadequate financial, structural, and academic resources. A crucial component to improved health in Haiti is the expansion of continuing medical education (CME). To our knowledge there have been no previous studies investigating the continuing professional development needs of Haitian physicians working in this context. The objectives of this study are to describe the educational resources available to Haitian physicians and to understand their continuing professional development needs.
Bangladesh. Teachers’ Guide to the Bangladesh Health Project curriculum for Bachelor of Science in Nursing
The purpose of this Open Educational Resource [OER] is to provide a template or prototype that can be adapted for other settings. This should benefit nurse educators and their students.
A public health e-learning master’s programme with a focus on health workforce development targeting francophone Africa: the University of Geneva experience
Shortage of a competent public health workforce is as a worldwide problem. The situation is especially bad in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2008, the World Health Organization and the Global Health Workforce Alliance launched a call for proposals for a public health training programme with an emphasis on health workforce development specifically targeting Africa. Our article presents the development, implementation and evaluation of an e-learning Master of Advanced Studies in Public Health on Workforce Development. The project was developed in collaboration with academic partner institutions of 10 French-speaking African countries and local/regional/HQ WHO offices.
Keys to the success of the programme were the enthusiasm and commitment of students, the availability of the coordination team, the simplicity of the electronic platform and the support of local/regional/WHO offices. Yet, the sustainability of the programme is not assured.
Cost of Scaling up the Health Workforce in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea Amid the Ebola Epidemic
Based on the assumptions, data and calculations in this paper, the overall cost of doubling the health workforce over five years in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea, and expanded coverage via a community health worker program comes to approximately $573.4 million, or less than $115 million per year on average.
The National Area Based Programme (NABDP) aims to reduce poverty and improve livelihoods in rural Afghanistan. In so doing it is helping catalyze progress on meeting the Millennium Development Goals on poverty and gender equality.
The report provides a menu of policy options for consideration among policy makers in the Government of Afghanistan, including the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Higher Education, as well as stakeholders and beneficiaries of the higher education sector such as public and private higher education institutions, members of the academic community, development partners, and employers and business leaders. The information and analysis presented in the report can contribute to the preparation and implementation the next phase of the higher education development strategy for Afghanistan.
In Somalia, decades of conflict and natural calamities have frustrated the normal coping strategies of its otherwise resilient population. To mitigate the impact of recurrent shocks to Somali livelihoods, the ICRC helps vulnerable groups start small businesses by offering vocational training to improve their skills, and then providing them with the capital investment or tools they need to start the business. This video shows examples of such programmes – training of young men as mechanics, carpenters and electricians and women as tailors.
Burkina Faso’s Institute of Water and Environmental Engineering is turning out graduates who are in high demand in the private sector. These young people, who have come to study in Ouagadougou from 27 African countries, are keen to transform Africa through science and technology. They need no longer leave the continent to earn a top-notch engineering degree.
To address the shortage of health information personnel within Botswana, an innovative human resources approach was taken. University graduates without training or experience in health information or health sciences were hired and provided with on-the-job training and mentoring to create a new cadre of health worker: the district Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Officer. This article describes the early outcomes, achievements, and challenges from this initiative.
Malawi. Gender differences in the effects of vocational training : constraints on women and drop-out behavior
This paper provides experimental evidence on the effects of vocational and entrepreneurial training for Malawian youth, in an environment where access to schooling and formal sector employment is extremely low. It tracks a large fraction of program drop-outs — a common phenomenon in the training evaluation literature — and examines the determinants and consequences of dropping out and how it mediates the effects of such programs. The analysis finds that women make decisions in a more constrained environment, and their participation is affected by family obligations. Participation is more expensive for them, resulting in worse training experience. The training results in skills development, continued investment in human capital, and improved well-being, with more positive effects for men, but no improvements in labor market outcomes in the short run.0
A literature review: the role of the private sector in the production of nurses in India, Kenya, South Africa and Thailand
Strategies must be devised to ensure that private nursing graduates serve public health needs of their populations. There must be policy coherence between producing nurses for export and ensuring sufficient supply to meet domestic needs, in particular in under-served areas. This study points to the need for further research in particular assessing the contributions made by the private sector to nurse production, and to examine the variance in quality of nurses produced.
An analysis of the provision, governance and financing of policies, strategies and programmes to promote the employability and skills development of youths.
This paper outlines some of the key challenges and opportunities regarding skills development for youth with disabilities. It focuses on those who are no longer in formal education, but who, for a variety of reasons, are not yet in formal employment. Where possible, it outlines the extent of labour force participation amongst youth living with disabilities, and discusses the barriers to participation.
This review examines the development and performance of skills development interventions as a part of social protection programming in middle and low income countries to address issues of youth unemployment.
West Africa. Vocational education, on-the-job training and labour market integration of young workers in urban West Africa
This paper describes the labour market integration of youth with regard to their level of formal education and to the type of vocational training they received. Overall, young workers without any formal VET are the more disadvantaged in terms of working conditions, while workers who benefited from a traditional apprenticeship in a small firm occupy an intermediate position. Apprenticeship training for young workers seems to be fairly prevalent in the informal sector, but the associated working conditions are bad, and kinship ties seem to be there a crucial channel fortraining access.
Marginalization of young people in education and work: findings from the school-to-work transition surveys
This paper studies causes and consequences of labor market marginalization in 8 developing countries.. More links between educational institutions, enterprises, social and institutional partners are decisive to implement the dual principle, namely generating work experience together with, rather than after general education: a closer integration of the educational system with the outside business world, through activities of job placement and counseling, as well as programs of on the job training (apprenticeship) are important to the generation of the job specific work experience and other skills that also entrepreneurs consider important when hiring a young person, therefore reducing the overall length of the school-to-work transition.
This study aimed at assessing skills deficits in developing country contexts on the basis of firm data from World Bank Enterprise Surveys. A precise definition of skills deficit was used – employers’ perceptions of inadequate workforce a educational levels as a relative and absolute constraint to firm growth and performance – to assess the relevance of skills deficits in a set of 25 low- and middle-income countries. Although limited to the formal sector and to employer perceptions, the study nonetheless highlights a number of patterns concerning skills deficits in the development world of relevance for policy.
A TedX talk by Francis J. Brochon, former lead developer of Minitel and founder of the first company that transformed analogue TV to digital, on the developing world. He takes the lessons he learned from his career in technology, business, and travels to help create positive change through technical education.
What Are We Learning from Business Training and Entrepreneurship Evaluations around the Developing World?
Business training programs are a popular policy option to try to improve the performance of enterprises around the world. The last few years have seen rapid growth in the number of evaluations of these programs in developing countries. We undertake a critical review of these studies with the goal of synthesizing the emerging lessons and understanding the limitations of the existing research and the areas in which more work is needed.
African countries are dependent on their informal sector and have much of their output and employment figures emanating from this sector. This paper adopted Malawi as a case study in human resource development for poverty reduction with an aim of getting a best plausible strategy in reducing poverty in Africa. Using the data set of informal sector programs in Malawi, the study recommended a family enrichment model as the best in getting these women out of poverty which will overall translate to getting Africa out of poverty.
Called ‘task shifting’, this strategy involves re-delegating professional tasks to nonprofessional cadres according to a skills-based toolkit. This study exposes our hidden assumption about an axiomatic transferability of Anglo American skills development models to a postcolonial, aid-dependent context. This paper therefore suggests redefining this toolkit by bridging health research into dialogue with non-health disciplinary concerns such as postcolonialism and aiddependence. In conclusion, it argues that professional skills development is context-laden; and in need of a human-centred approach that involves true indigenousparticipation–challenges not unlike those faced by the vocational skills discourse.
This policy brief focuses on the opportunities made available in informal apprenticeship systems for improving skill provision in the informal economy to offer young people, especially in developing countries, ways to more productive and decent jobs.
The Kenyan voucher program shows that youth will take advantage of job training when the costs are covered through vouchers. And among those who do enroll, a majority stay with the program. This underscores the potential usefulness of including the private sector in public policy programs designed to boost demand for job training.
If a country decides to embark on development of national standards, stakeholder involvement must be formalized early in the process. Countries that embark on national standards development need a long-term view as national systems can take 3-5 years to develop before they have an impact on employment and training. Development should be prioritized to get the maximum benefit from resources. Financing must be available for development and recurrent expenses to ensure sustainability. Stakeholders should each contribute resources.
Business leaders often complain they don’t have an adequately skilled workforce. But we need a new education model – one that reaches the hard to reach, in spite of growing teacher shortages and cutbacks in education spending. mLearning represents potential. Nearly six billion people own cell phones. Should the ICT and telecom sector works with the mLearning community to accelerate its adoption and help scale up projects, one of our most pressing global issues can be addressed. It has the potential to accelerate access to vocational training along with informal and formal education. It represents an opportunity for people to take an active role in their own future. It can help create a more practical and current set of learning tools to match the rapidly changing skills required in today’s workforce.
The study shows that creating a larger number of more productive jobs for a growing labor force calls for a multisectoral reform agenda that includes improving access to electricity for firms across all sectors in urban and rural settings, dealing decisively with issues of governance and corruption, improving access to land and transport links between town and country, improving nutrition in early childhood, equipping workers with skills relevant for the world of work, and reorienting labor market regulations and programs to protect workers rather than jobs.