Concerted and creative new solutions are needed to enable women to seize new opportunities in the automation age; without them, women may fall further behind in the world of work.
Concerted and creative new solutions are needed to enable women to seize new opportunities in the automation age; without them, women may fall further behind in the world of work.
Malawi. Gender Differences in the Effects of Vocational Training: Constraints on Women and Drop-Out Behavior
This paper provides experimental evidence on the effects of vocational and entrepreneurial training for Malawian youth, in an environment where access to schooling and formal sector employment is extremely low. It tracks a large fraction of program drop-outs — a common phenomenon in the training evaluation literature — and examines the determinants and consequences of dropping out and how it mediates the effects of such programs.
This report seeks to increase understanding of how to improve girls’ and young women’s participation in TVET and to help strengthen the bridge between their education and employment.
Increasing women’s participation in male-dominated trades has been identified as a means of improving the supply of skilled tradespersons in Canada.
En français. Canada. Quelle est la situation sur le marché du travail des femmes suivant des programmes d’apprentissage à prédominance masculine?
Given the current state of technology, It is estimated that 26 million female jobs in 30 countries are at a high risk of being displaced by technology (i.e., facing higher than 70 percent likelihood of being automated) within the next two decades.
Policies are needed to endow women with required skills; close gender gaps in leadership positions; bridge digital gender divide and ease transitions for older and low-skilled female workers.
Bangladesh. Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in Bangladesh: systems, curricula, and transition pathways
TVET in Bangladesh is gaining recognition as a vital tool for economic development as the country attempts to attain middle income economy status by 2021. Several initiatives are being taken by the government and donor agencies to increase the enrolment and encourage female participation and gender equity in TVET.
Australia. Gendered transitions from education to work: The mysterious relationship between the fields of education and work
This article addresses the paradox that, despite achieving educational participation exceeding their male peers, young women see fewer returns for this investment in the labour market. This approach reveals the enduring power of the time structure of paid work in Australia to dominate key dimensions of life, including caring work, placing many women in a situation where they feel they must ‘choose’ career or parenthood.
Fostering higher participation of women is crucial to meet the Europe 2020 target to achieve an overall employment rate of at least 75% by 2020. This report explores the main characteristics and consequences of gender gaps in labour market participation.
This paper explores the challenges and opportunities for enhancing gender parity in sectors likely to exhibit high growth in the context of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and identifies key acceleration strategies by sector. Furthermore, it highlights examples of successful implementation through diverse and complimentary instruments to inspire action for rapid progress.
Jordan. The impact of soft skills training on female youth employment: evidence from a randomized experiment in Jordan
Employers around the world complain that youth lack the soft skills needed for success in the workplace. In response, a number of employment programs have begun to incorporate soft skills training, but to date there has been little evidence as to the effectiveness of such programs. This paper reports on a randomized experiment in Jordan in which female community college graduates were randomly assigned to a soft skills training program. Despite this program being twice as long in length as the average program in the region, and taught by a well-regarded provider, we find soft skills training does not have any significant employment impact in three rounds of follow-up surveys.
In the drive to get more women into senior management roles in business, mentoring programs have proliferated both within organisations and across sectors. But the question remains – why haven’t these mentoring relationships had a significant impact on the statistics?
The guide provides guidance and practical tools on how to tackle the challenges and barriers to female participation in training and provides information on available technical resources.
This brief presents an overview and analysis of the opportunities, risks and vulnerabilities for women migrants and refugees. It describes the realities of women migrating around the world, specifically the experiences of both high-skilled and low-skilled migrant workers employed in a range of ‘care’ professions, from domestic workers to nurses and doctors.
Schools often offer vocational classes at the expense of advanced courses, which can leave young women with few options.
Women have become increasingly well-educated, and today their share in the Canadian labour market is larger than ever. This report examines women’s educational experiences, with a focus on STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics and computer science) education and skills.
This Training of Trainers (ToT) module can be used by gender trainers as well as trainers in the area of disaster management and development, practitioners, academia and other relevant stakeholders in implementing gender sensitive interventions in pre as well as post disaster scenario.
When it comes to making it in the macho world of the trades, a few women are thinking pink and profitable. Some women, though, are capitalizing on their gender. Each of the following entrepreneurs are using their influence to encourage other young women to enter the trades. But they have more in common than X chromosomes. A combination of hard work, savvy, and positive mentorship played a role in their success. But the bottom line is they’re good at their jobs.
For a lot of people, going to a four-year college or university seems like an automatic choice when they graduate from high school. The reason is obvious – higher income and more status. In many countries you don’t get a job after the bachelor’s degree. If you are a young woman your chance in the labor market is smaller.
We estimate gender differences in internal promotion experiences for a representative sample of Canadian workers using linked employer-employee data. We find that women in Canada are 3 percentage points less likely to be promoted and have received fewer promotions than similar men, but these differences stem almost entirely from gender differences in industry and occupation. By contrast, women experience an estimated 2.9 percent less wage growth in the year of a promotion than similar men even after controlling for industry, occupation, and firm effects – though a significant “family gap” exists among women as single women and women without children experience essentially the same wage returns to promotion as men.
We study the mechanisms that are associated with the gender education gap and its reversal in Germany. We focus on three outcomes, graduation from upper secondary school, any tertiary education, and tertiary degree. Neither individual and family background nor labor market characteristics appear to be strongly associated with the gender education gap. There is some evidence that the gender gap in upper secondary education reflects the rising share of single parent households which impacts boys’ attainment more than girls’. The gender education gap in tertiary education is correlated with the development of class sizes and social norms.
The forces driving changes in the Canadian wage structure will not be offset by simply increasing the education level of the workforce. In particular, directing more resources toward university education would benefit children from middle- and upper-income households the most and could in fact increase inequality. Increasing spending on college and apprenticeship programs appears to be no better as a solution, unless core issues such as low female participation and the low completion rates of participants are effectively addressed. In contrast, targeting expenditures on early childhood development and secondary school toward low-income households has greater potential to reduce inequality both in the long term and across generations. But even in these cases, the ultimate impact on wage differences between middle- and high-earners is unclear. Education and training policy is not a silver bullet for solving inequality.
Bangladesh. Resource Guide on Gender Mainstreaming into Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Bangladesh
The main purpose of this Resource Guide is to provide guidance, practical how-to tools and available information on technical resources to support the task of operationalizing the National Strategy for Promoting Gender Equality within TVET institutions .
More specifically, the Guide focuses on three objectives:
– To facilitate a clear understanding of key barriers to female participation from a gender perspective and analyze their implications in women‘s employment and economic empowerment;
– To provide practical tools and guidance on how to mainstream gender effectively into the TVET institutional structures, systems, programmes and activities;
– To provide information on available technical resources to strengthen the capacity of TVET gender focal points in mainstreaming gender equality concerns.
The percentage of women working full time for an employer in 2014 did not reach 50% in any country, while this percentage was 50% or higher for men in 13 countries. Women tended to have the highest Payroll to Population (P2P) employment rates in countries with stronger social safety nets and labor market regulations, while the countries with the highest P2P rates for men were a mix of these and more liberal economies.
Related report. Good Jobs 2014
The Good Jobs 2014 report presents the results from Gallup’s latest global Payroll to Population (P2P) employment measurements, based on more than 182,000 interviews with adults in 144 countries in 2014.
Overcoming gender segregation in occupations matters to industry and to the economy. Low female workforce participation rates and segregation of women into existing female-dominated industries contribute to labour market rigidity, sub-optimal productivity and economic inefficiency due to the under-utilisation of the skills of women.
The under representation of women in academic science is typically attributed, both in scientific literature and in the media, to sexist hiring. Here we report five hiring experiments in which faculty evaluated hypothetical female and male applicants, using systematically varied profiles disguising identical scholarship, for assistant professorships in biology, engineering, economics, and psychology. Contrary to prevailing assumptions, men and women faculty members from all four fields preferred female applicants 2:1 over identically qualified males with matching lifestyles (single, married, divorced), with the exception of male economists, who showed no gender preference. Comparing different lifestyles revealed that women preferred divorced mothers to married fathers and that men preferred mothers who took parental leaves to mothers who did not. Our findings, supported by real-world academic hiring data, suggest advantages for women launching academic science careers.
Women who want to work often face many more hurdles than men. This is true in Tajikistan where there is a large gender gap in labour force participation. We highlight the role of two factors – international migration and education – on the labour force participation decision and its gender gap. Using probit and decomposition analysis, our investigation shows that education and migration have a significant association with the gender gap in labour force participation in Tajikistan. International emigration from Tajikistan, in which approximately 93.5% of the participants are men, reduces labour force participation by men domestically; increased female education, especially at the university and vocational level, increases female participation. Both women acquiring greater access to education and men increasing their migration abroad contribute to reducing the gender gap.
Institutionalized Inequality and Brain Drain: An Empirical Study of the Effects of Women’s Rights on the Gender Gap in High-Skilled Migration
This paper investigates the effects of institutionalized gender inequality, proxied by a women’s rights index, on the female high-skilled migration rates relative to that of male (the female brain drain ratio). By developing a model of migration choice I find non-linear effects of gender inequality on the female brain drain ratio as a result of effects of gender inequality on both costs and benefits of migration. At low levels of women’s rights, increases in the index lead to increases in the female brain drain ratio. This is consistent with, at low levels of women’s rights, prohibitively high costs of migration for females. Once a certain level of protections has been afforded to them, the costs to migration are low enough that many women then decide to leave the oppressive society and migrate where the benefits associated with their human capital are higher. However, as women’s rights continue to strengthen, those benefits to migration then tend to decrease. The effect on female brain drain then turns negative. Using a panel of up to 195 countries I find evidence consistent with this model which is robust to instrumental variable approach. A one-point increase in the above average level of this index is associated with an average of about a 25-percentage point decrease in the female brain drain ratio.
Age, not gender, is increasingly at the heart of income inequality in Canada, says a new study that warns economic growth and social stability will be at risk if companies don’t start paying better wages.
This paper sets out to take a wider lens on literacy in order to explore not only ‘what works’ in practical terms of encouraging women to participate in programmes, but also to look at how and why literacy programmes can contribute to sustainable development and processes of empowerment.
Belgium. Native-Immigrant Gaps in Educational and School-to-Work Transitions in the Second Generation: The Role of Gender and Ethnicity
We study how native-immigrant (second generation) differences in educational trajectories and school-to-work transitions vary by gender. Using longitudinal Belgian data and adjusting for family background and educational sorting, we find that both male and female second generation immigrants, especially Turks and Moroccans, lag natives in finishing secondary education and beginning tertiary education when schooling delay is taken into account, though the female gap is larger. The same is true for residual gaps in the transition to work: native males are 30% more likely than comparable Turkish males to be employed three months after leaving school, while the corresponding female gap is 60%. In addition, we study demographic behaviors (fertility, marriage and cohabitation) related to hypotheses that attribute educational and economic gaps to cultural differences between immigrants and natives.
Mentorship has been identified as a key foundation for the success of women entrepreneurs and women leaders.
Education is a basic human right, and gender equality is fundamental to its full realization. Gender inequalities around the world are manifested in many aspects of education, including access, retention, success, and career choices and opportunities. This is both a cause and a result of systemic discrimination and gender stereotyping. Gender equality in and through teacher education is the ultimate goal of this guide. It seeks to contribute towards quality teacher education by ensuring that girls and boys, women and men are treated equally and have equal access to learning opportunities.
Whilst there have been very welcome changes in education, and higher education (HE) especially, such that there is a gender balance of undergraduate students in HE, this does not mean that gender equality has been achieved. Patriarchy or hegemonic masculinity in HE is still strongly felt and experienced despite women’s and feminist involvements in academe over the last 50 years. The question remains about how to transform universities to achieve genuine gender equality across all students and academics in HE.
Sri Lanka. Why aren’t Sri Lankan women translating their educational gains into workforce advantages?
The last two decades have seen a phenomenal rise in girls’ education and a concomitant decline or stagnation in labor market outcomes for women, especially in female labor force participation in central and southeastern Europe, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia.
This paper focuses on Sri Lanka, a country with a long record of gender equality in education enrollment and high female completion rates, which has also been characterized by low and stagnant female labor force participation. It remains a puzzle why Sri Lanka has been unable to translate its high girls’ education gains into female labor force participation.
Barefoot College is an NGO that is training a new generation of female solar engineers to fuel the rural developing world with renewable energy.
The common myth about women in Iran is that they are seen, but not heard, that they’re not permitted to drive, that they are second-class citizens, and that entrepreneurship and positions of power are out of reach. These notions are wrong. For years, women in Iran have owned and managed businesses, many of them in male dominant industries like oil and gas, construction, mining, and now tech. And now, with such a high number graduating with degrees in science and engineering, there’s a push to get women more involved in Iran’s blossoming startup scene.
It could take another 118 years before economic gender parity is achieved. More worrying, the 2015 Report reveals that progress towards parity is remarkably slow, possibly even stalling.
Related report. The Global Gender Gap Report 2015
Jordan. Evaluating a vocational training programme for women refugees at the Zaatari camp in Jordan: women empowerment: a journey and not an output
This study aims at evaluating a vocational training programme entitled ‘Women and Girls Oasis’ at the Zaatari Refugee Camp in the city of Mafraq, Jordan. The research study was undertaken in 2014/2015, and highlights the impact of such vocational training programmes on the well-being of Syrian women refugees. The results show that ‘Women and Girls Oasis’ Programme enhanced women’s confidence and self-esteem, improved their occupational business, and entrepreneurship skills, helped them generate income to build a better life for their shattered families; and gave them hope and opportunities after experiencing war firsthand. The study reveals that in a refugee community, patterns are deconstructed and gender roles may be changed; this gender equality and women empowerment are seen as perquisites for sustainable development and achieving the millennium development goal. The study offers recommendations for UN Women, UNHCR and similar NGO’s concerned with the well-being of refugees in Jordan and neighbouring countries.
The project idea is to improve the self-employability of women through entrepreneurship training and skills.
This paper provides experimental evidence on the effects of vocational and entrepreneurial training for Malawian youth, in an environment where access to schooling and formal sector employment is extremely low. It tracks a large fraction of program drop-outs—a common phenomenon in the training evaluation literature—and examines the determinants and consequences of dropping out and how it mediates the effects of such programs.
The analysis finds that women make decisions in a more constrained environment, and their participation is affected by family obligations. Participation is more expensive for them, resulting in worse training experience. The training results in skills development, continued investment in human capital, and improved well-being, with more positive effects for men, but no improvements in labor market outcomes in the short run.
Preliminary findings from an upcoming study on internships in Canada show that the majority of interns are young women who make less than the provincial minimum wage — if they’re paid at all.
Canada. Long-term labour market premiums associated with a terminal high school diploma, 1991 to 2010
A study that followed a group of men and women for two decades reports that men who had finished high school by 1991 earned $206,000 more over those 20 years than men with no high school diploma. For women, the difference between the two groups was $161,000. The dollar figures are expressed in 2010 constant dollars to account for inflation.
En français. Canada. Les avantages à long terme sur le marché du travail associés au diplôme terminal d’études secondaires
The National Area Based Programme (NABDP) aims to reduce poverty and improve livelihoods in rural Afghanistan. In so doing it is helping catalyze progress on meeting the Millennium Development Goals on poverty and gender equality.
Young Canadian women who apprenticed had lower incomes than high school and college grads.
Highlights – 1,000 young girls receive training in non-traditional vocational areas. – Vocational training is a pillar of Haiti’s reconstruction. This program targets gender-related vulnerability in Haiti.
The B.C. government plans to spend $4 million to train women in trades to address the growing need for skilled workers in mining, shipbuilding and the gas and liquefied natural gas industries.