The Quality Reference Framework can be used to analyse the needs and demands for future MOOCs, to design, develop and implement new MOOCs and to evaluate and improve existing MOOCs.
The Quality Reference Framework can be used to analyse the needs and demands for future MOOCs, to design, develop and implement new MOOCs and to evaluate and improve existing MOOCs.
Based on data on vocational education, skills, employment and labour market outcomes compiled in 2019, this report provides an overview of trends and developments and aims to raise awareness on the use of indicators to drive the policy cycle.
This paper collected and analysed existing information and data on the skills demands of the future in European Training Foundation (ETF) partner countries, and to explore responses for better managing the transition towards an inclusive future for the benefit of individuals and societies.
The European Union’s economic recovery has strengthened. But the economic downturn has accelerated long-term trends of globalisation and digitalisation that demand new skills. Forecasts of a smaller available workforce due to demographic trends are also becoming a reality. Vocational education and training (VET) can help tackle these issues, especially as part of a comprehensive policy approach.
En français. UE. Améliorer l’enseignement et la formation professionnels grâce aux données, aux analyses et aux échanges
EU & USA. Transnational education policy and a globally competitive workforce: a comparative analysis of vocational education and training policy in the European Union and the United States
This research examines parallel multilevel political entities as they competitively position education within a global education policyscape.
EU. Proposed Models of Including Non-formal Sector Qualifications in National Qualifications Frameworks
It is envisaged that in the coming years, the inclusion of non-formal sector qualifications will constitute one of the most important topics in discussions on National Qualifications Frameworks (NQF) implementation at the EU and national levels. Central issues in these discussions will consist of model solutions, the quality assurance of this process and its financial aspects.
The survey covers the 28 Member States of the European Union and provides an unprecedented insight into EU citizens’ opinions on awareness, attractiveness, experience and effectiveness of vocational education and training in the EU. Given the heterogeneity and variety of VET within and across Member States, the scope of the survey is mainly focused on initial vocational training (IVET) at upper secondary level.
Cedefop’s VET toolkit for tackling early leaving proposes several evidence-based approaches which can be useful to help learners with a migrant background remain or reintegrate into education and training and qualify.
The European labour market is challenged by changes in the demographic composition of the labour force and by increasing work complexities and processes.
The paper shows that paid and well-designed internships payoff: Young people with a paid internship are more likely to find a job than those who were not remunerated. The presence of a mentor, similar working conditions to regular employees, including access to health insurance, and sufficient duration of internships also contribute to increasing the effectiveness of internships.
This paper contains an analysis of how the EU intends to implement internationalization in vocational education and training and of the tools used for internationalization and mobility. Furthermore, the authors analyze internationalization trends in vocational education and training in Germany resulting from the EU initiatives. These trends are compared to those in another European country, the Netherlands.
The term skill mismatch is very broad and can relate to many forms of labour market friction, including vertical mismatch, skill gaps, skill shortages, field of study (horizontal) mismatch and skill obsolescence. In this paper we provide a clear overview of each concept and discuss the measurement and inter-relatedness of different forms of mismatch.
The systematic review and renewal of Vocational Education and Training (VET) is crucial to ensuring its continued quality and labour-market relevance. A better understanding of the performance of VET graduates in the labour market is one of the key sources for assessing and improving the quality and labour market relevance of VET, alongside forecasts of skills supply and demand.
This handbook supports the transfer and adaptation of career development tools used in guidance, early school leaving prevention, employment services, youth centres and other organisations.
The aim of this toolkit is to support stakeholders to design, implement and monitor adult education strategies, policies and practices.
En français. UE. Guide pour élaborer, mettre en œuvre et suivre le développement des stratégies de l’éducation des adultes
The introduction of digitalisation in business is having a momentous impact on the production systems, labour conditions and organisational models of the labour market and the society in general. Quality basic education, high-standard and effective training, lifelong learning, up- and re-skilling for all will be the necessary tools for grasping the job opportunities of the future and fostering enterprise competitiveness.
En français. UE. L’avenir du travail/compétences
This paper discusses the European Parliament’s Resolution of 16 February 2017 with recommendations to the Commission on Civil Law Rules on Robotics (European Parliament 2017). It provides a brief summary of the content of the Resolution and looks at its basic principles and raison d’être.
En français. Union européenne. Une législation européenne sur la robotique et l’intelligence artificielle ?
The ESCO handbook gives a general overview of the different aspects of the classification and is divided in four parts: – I. What is ESCO?: ESCO is a common classification language designed to connect people to jobs. – II. Developing ESCO: In this chapter, you will find information about the process that led to the publication of ESCO v1 including the actors involved, the governance structure and the different steps in the development of the classification. – III. Using ESCO: ESCO terminology can be used to support job matching, job searching, career management or labour market analysis. – IV. Keeping ESCO up-to-date.
The 39 countries monitored (28 EU Member States, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Kosovo, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland and Turkey) are developing and implementing 43 national qualifications frameworks.
Compiling different data insights, the report highlights that skill mismatch is a complex, multidimensional and dynamic phenomenon. It calls on policy-makers to adopt a different mindset for tackling skill mismatch, focused on sustainable activation, continuous learning, job-task reengineering and promotion of higher-end product market/managerial practices.
Fostering higher participation of women is crucial to meet the Europe 2020 target to achieve an overall employment rate of at least 75% by 2020. This report explores the main characteristics and consequences of gender gaps in labour market participation.
Work-based learning (WBL) in Vocational education and training (VET) provides important benefits, by increasing employability and smoother school to work transition. It contributes to reducing skill shortages and gaps, reduces youth unemployment, increases entrepreneurship and innovation and finally has the potential to foster social inclusion. The aim of the study was to provide the Education and Training 2020 Working Group on VET (2016-2018) with findings on three key areas:
– governance arrangements in place for professionals involved in WBL;
– professionalisation arrangements for those professionals; and finally,
– in what way cooperation between schools and companies is arranged, focusing on the quality of the professionals involved.
The tool is intended for use by any services that may be offering assistance to third country nationals and should be used in an interview situation to get to know the individual, their skills, qualifications and experiences. The focus of the tool is to help individuals produce a profile of their skills and to help an adviser identify any recommendations or next steps. The information collected can be used to: support further assessment, form a basis for offering guidance, identify up-skilling needs, support job-searching and job-matching.
This study reviews recent policies and practices aiming to tackle unemployment through addressing skill mismatch in the EU-28 Member States. It examines skill mismatch policy instruments aimed at reducing unemployment as well as measures to prevent it.
As part of its contribution to EU policy to boost quality skilled jobs, the ETUC, with national trade unions from across Europe, has drawn up the report setting out 20 quality standards. It is inspired by existing quality apprenticeship schemes across Europe and based on good practice at national and sectoral level.
En français. Union européenne. Contribution syndicale pour des apprentissages de qualité en Europe
Volume I: investigating causes and extent
Volume II: evaluating policy impact
Information and views on the role of non-formal and informal learning as a means to enhance employability and mobility.
–Validation of skills and qualifications acquired through non-formal and informal learning – the practical input of organised civil society
–The shift to learning outcomes – a critical condition for validation of non-formal and informal learning
–The impact of non-formal education in youth organisations on young people’s employability
–Recognition of nonformal learning through Higher Education Civic Engagement Strategies
–Scout leader skills
–Europass for Volunteers
–Validation of non-formal and informal learning, a practical view
This report contains more than 30 detailed structural indicators, up-to-date figures, definitions, country notes and a short analysis of recent key policy developments and reforms in five areas: early childhood education and care, achievement in basic skills, early leaving from education and training, higher education and graduate employability.
The report provides background and complementary information on a number of structural indicators examined in the Education and Training Monitor 2016 which describes the evolution of Europe’s education and training systems based on a wide range of evidence. It follows the progress made by the EU Members States towards achieving the targets set by the Europe 2020 and the Education and Training 2020 reform processes.
Projections for skill supply and demand in the European Union (EU) foresee a gradual return to job growth and an older, but better qualified workforce. The latest forecast extends the time horizon from 2020 to 2025 and differs from its predecessors in seeing demand for high-level qualifications speeding up.
EU. Guidelines for Policies and Systems Development for Lifelong Guidance: A Reference Framework for the EU and for the Commission
There are 18 Guidelines divided into the four following categories:
– Transversal policy components: funding, training and qualifications, that apply to all sectors of guidance provision
– Education and training sector: schools; VET; higher education; adult learning
– Employment and third age sector: employed; unemployed; older adults
– Social inclusion sector: young people at risk; disadvantaged groups
This study investigates the role of modules and units in vocational education and training (VET) in 15 EU countries and aims to determine how these structures fit in the wider VET systems.
It provides a comparative analysis of different modularisation and unitisation practices and the rationale behind their implementation, and an outline of the different national contexts in which modular and unitised structures developed over time. It also offers a close-up of three different approaches to modularisation in one occupational area, in Germany, the Netherlands and Scotland.
Teens and young adults were among the groups hit hardest by the global financial crisis. And while many young people have since regained their footing – as employees, students or both – there are still millions in the U.S. and abroad who are neither working nor in school. Though sometimes referred to as “disconnected” or “detached” youth, globally those young people often are called “NEETs” – because they are neither employed nor in education or training.
In countries where vocational pathways account for a large share of education and training, rates of early school leaving are below the EU target for 2020 (10%). Conversely, in countries where VET lags behind, the dropout rate is higher than 10%; in some cases, significantly so.
Briefing note available in Spanish, German, Greek, English, French, Italian, Lithuanian, Polish and Portuguese.
The Guidebook’s primary aim is to provide an overview of the main apprenticeship and traineeship programmes (‘what exists’) which have been in operation in each Member State in the period 2007-2012, with a particular focus on their employment outcomes and overall effectiveness.
The proven benefits of schemes which combine work and study and allow young people to acquire a first work experience have led to increased recent policy interest at both national and EU level. As a result, apprenticeships and traineeships have become more prominent in the EU’s employment and youth policies in recent years.
European Alliance for Apprenticeships: companies and organisations commit to making 140 000 apprenticeships available to young people
The fight against youth unemployment is a top priority for the European Commission. Good quality apprenticeships help young people to acquire the skills and key competences necessary to be successful on the labour market. Today more than forty companies and other organisations have joined the European Alliance for Apprenticeships, coordinated by the European Commission, and committed to providing more and better apprenticeships for young people. The companies will make a total of 140 000 apprenticeships and training opportunities available to young people. The European Commission is committed to strengthening the supply, quality and image of apprenticeships.
The new pledges were signed in Riga during a meeting of Ministers in charge of vocational education and training, the European social partners and the Commission, organised by the Latvian Presidency.
Related European Alliance for Apprenticeships
FAQ. Frequently asked questions: European Alliance for Apprenticeships
The Riga Declaration
Over 40 delegations participated in the meeting of Ministers in charge of Vocational Education and Training (VET), in Riga on 22 June 2015. The goal of the event was to address workforce challenges, such as labour shortages and skills mismatches, that Europe is likely to face in the future.
Results of a mapping survey conducted in October-December 2013. The results of this survey are surprising. Apart from a few notable exceptions, almost all institutions are involved in some forms of e-learning. It seems that there has been no sudden and disruptive change, but rather that a gradual adaptation has taken place, which continues at different paces and scales across Europe. Nevertheless institutional responses to MOOCs do suggest that European higher education institutions are capable of responding swiftly to new strategic challenges.
With high levels of youth unemployment in the European Union, helping young people find work is a pressing problem. By providing opportunities in a real work situation to acquire valuable skills and learn appropriate behaviour, traineeships can help young people make the transition from education or unemployment to permanent work.
Traineeships (also known as internships or “stages”) can help young people in the transition from school to employment by providing them with practical, hands-on training in the workplace. Despite this, concerns have been expressed over the working conditions during traineeships and the level of compensation, as well as on the effective learning content of these experiences for young people.
This survey interviewed EU citizens aged 18-35 about their experience with traineeships and the benefits they felt they had received from them.
European Union. Green light for Erasmus+: More than 4 million to get EU grants for skills and employability
Aimed at boosting skills, employability and supporting the modernisation of education, training and youth systems, the seven-year programme will have a budget of €14.7 billion – 40% higher than current levels. More than 4 million people will receive support to study, train, work or volunteer abroad, including 2 million higher education students, 650 000 vocational training students and apprentices, as well as more than 500 000 going on youth exchanges or volunteering abroad.
European Union. Study on the impact of the Leonardo da Vinci programme on the quality of vocational education and training systems
The European Commission pursues several goals with the LEONARDO DA VINCI programme. On the one hand, the programme is intended to enhance transnational mobility of vocational education and training professionals (VETPro) and of young people engaged in vocational education and training. On the other hand, mobility actions for VETPro and innovation projects are intended to contribute to the modernization of initial (IVET) and the continuing training systems (CVET) and their adaptation to reflect the challenges of progressing European integration.
European Union. Benefits of vocational education and training in Europe for people, organisations and countries
Some of VET’s most important benefits are difficult to express in monetary terms. Organisations, individuals and governments, consequently, may not take full account of VET’s benefits when deciding to invest in it. A better understanding all of its benefits may not only influence the likelihood of investing in VET, but is important for organisations competing on the basis of high quality goods and services where skills and attitudes need to combine to bring success.
Relative to medium-level general education, there is evidence that vocational graduates enjoy a faster transition to work and are more likely to have a permanent first job in line with their qualifications. But there are substantial differences between countries. Benefits for vocational graduates are most prominent in countries with strong vocational education and training systems with a close connection between school- and work-based learning. However, as people age and gain experience, differences between medium-level general education and vocational graduates diminish. This report aims to improve our understanding of labour market outcomes for vocational education graduates. A real need if we are to respond effectively to the current challenges of high unemployment.
This publication offers a set of indicator snapshots. A defined set of 31 core statistical indicators quantifies key aspects of vocational education and training and lifelong learning to help describe, monitor and compare European countries and their progress. The indicators are selected based on their policy relevance as well as on their importance to achieving the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy.
European Union. Prison education and training in Europe current state-of-play and challenges: current state-of-play and challenges
The report shows how education and training for prisoners help reduce the social costs of crime and support the rehabilitation of prisoners and their reintegration into society. It further provides an overview of key European policies and funding programmes related to prison education and training, highlighting their added value and contribution to the development of innovative and new approaches to education provision in prisons. It then looks into the current ‘state-of-play’ with regard to provision in prisons across Europe, providing some concrete examples from individual Member States.
European Union. Internationalisation in European higher education: European policies, institutional strategies and EUA support
The consultation asked:
• what the university would expect from the EU higher education internationalisation strategy that is to be launched in June 2013.
• whether and to what extent members participate in EUA’s international activities, and what they would expect it to offer in the future.
European Union. Quantifying skill needs in Europe Occupational skills profiles: methodology and application
Statistical information on skill and qualification requirements for occupations is fragmented, inconsistent, difficult to compare across European countries, and usually not detailed enough to reflect the specific characteristics of a given occupation. The occupational skills profile approach aims at integrating several available European sources and supplementing them with data gathered from EU and US surveys. This has been made possible by developing specific methods of data mapping, matching and integration. As a result, the skill requirements of occupations can be not only defined at a detailed level and further aggregated at higher levels as required, but also compared across sectors, countries and over time.
Using information provided by social partners, national and regional authorities and credit transfer system experts, this annual report on ECVET looks into how far 38 countries/regions have come in testing, using, and committing to applying ECVET in qualifications; and examines which countries have put this development on hold, and why.