This report argues that the appropriate policy responses are to ensure macroeconomic stability, and in particular, a regulatory framework that encourages small- and medium-sized enterprises where most people in the region work. Mainly agrarian countries should focus on raising agricultural productivity. In urbanizing countries, good urban planning becomes critical. Pacific island countries will need to provide youth with human capital needed to succeed abroad as migrant workers. And, across the region, it is critical to ‘formalize’ more work, to increase the coverage of essential social protection, and to sustain productivity. To this end, policies should encourage mobility of labor and human capital, and not favor some forms of employment – for instance, full-time wage employment in manufacturing – over others, either implicitly or explicitly. Policies to increase growth and well-being from employment should instead reflect and support the dynamism and diversity of work forms across the region.
Do Interventions Targeted at Micro-Entrepreneurs and Small and Medium-Sized Firms Create Jobs? A Systematic Review of the Evidence for Low and Middle Income Countries
Worldwide 600 million jobs are needed over the next 15 years to keep employment rates at their current level. Governments, non-governmental organizations and donors spend on targeted programs and broader policies to enhance employment creation and the creation of new firms. Because most employment in low and middle income countries is in micro, small and medium-sized enterprises, these firms are especially targeted by such interventions. Despite these efforts, not much is known about which of these interventions are really effective and under which conditions particular interventions work. This systematic review synthesizes the existing evidence on the impact of these programs. Overall the review shows that creating employment is a very complex challenge. Many conditions have to be met before interventions in favor of individual enterprises do not only improve business practices and performance but also lead to additional jobs. A striking finding is that the study design matters for the impacts found; randomized controlled trials find systematically smaller effects than quasi-experimental studies. A significant shortcoming of the literature is that almost nothing is known about long term effects and cost effectiveness.
Against a backdrop of aging populations and persistently low economic growth, few European governments are doing enough to help recent immigrants move from low-skilled precarious jobs and into decent work, says a new report by the Migration Policy Institute (MPI) and International Labour Organization (ILO).
Related report. Aiming Higher: Policies to get Immigrants into Middle-Skilled Work in Europe
The OECD Skills Strategy provides an integrated, cross-government framework to help countries understand more about how to invest in skills in a way that will transform lives and drive economies. It is designed to provide a basis on which governments can begin converting “better skills policies” into jobs, growth, and “better lives”.
Effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving women’s employability and quality of work : a critical review
This paper examines the effectiveness of a variety of policy interventions that have been tried in developing and transition economies with the goal of improving women’s employability and quality of work. The programs include active labor market programs, education and training programs, programs that facilitate work (such as childcare subsidies, parental leave programs and land titling programs), microfinance programs, entrepreneurship and leadership programs, and conditional cash transfer programs. Some of these policy interventions were undertaken to increase employment, some to increase female employment, and some for other reasons.
Young people have been hit hard by the economic downturn with the EU youth unemployment rate reaching 20%. This review summarises messages from 33 national articles on this theme, linking them to policy developments, studies and data. It details the European and national contexts before examining measures to promote youth employment. These cover education, training, labour market and benefit policies, as well as measures to address problematic aspects and labour market actors’ roles.
The EU initiative ‘An Agenda for new skills and jobs’ forms part of the Europe 2020 Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. A key aim of Europe 2020 is to ensure that 75 % of men and women aged 20-64 are in employment by 2020. The Strategy also aims to cut the number of early school leavers to 10% and increase the number of young people in higher or equivalent vocational education to at least 40%. The Agenda proposes thirteen actions which will contribute to improving the functioning of Europe’s labour market. They will help to increase job flexibility and security, provide incentives to invest in training, ensure decent working conditions and facilitate job creation.
This policy brief looks at why national skills policies matter, what can be achieved by developing a national skills policy, key policy principles and how these can be incorporated in national skills policies as well as the process for policy development and effective implementation of skills policies. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_emp/—ifp_skills/documents/publication/wcms_167172.pdf
The concept of flexicurity has been based on a notion that robust active labour market policies, lifelong learning investment and modern social security systems can ensure security of employment and income, even if contractual arrangements become more flexible and job transitions more frequent, as required by the rapidly evolving economic context.
This report reviews progress made across Europe during 2007-10 in developing guidance policy coordination, quality assurance mechanisms, access to services and career management skills. Increasing cooperation among guidance stakeholders aims at creating better synergies between the different sectors (education, training, employment), levels (European, national, regional, local) and guidance service providers (educational institutions, public employment services, guidance centres).