CVA December 2015 Newsletter
DACUM I PUBLIC WORKSHOPS in 2016
  • March 7-10, Halifax, NS
  • April 18-21, Calgary, AB
  • May 2-5, Montréal, QC (in French)
  • October 3-6, Vancouver BC
  • November 7-10, Toronto, ON
For more information on DACUM : here

IN FOCUS : GENDER
CVA's PICKS OF THE MONTH

A guide for gender equality in teacher education policy and practices
Education is a basic human right, and gender equality is fundamental to its full realization. Gender inequalities around the world are manifested in many aspects of education, including access, retention, success, and career choices and opportunities. This is both a cause and a result of systemic discrimination and gender stereotyping. Gender equality in and through teacher education is the ultimate goal of this guide. It seeks to contribute towards quality teacher education by ensuring that girls and boys, women and men are treated equally and have equal access to learning opportunities.
Tags : Document; Education - policy; Education - teachers; Gender - equity; Policy - educational; Source: UNGEI - United Nations Girls` Education Initiative; Teachers;

ARTICLES and PAPERS

Belgium. Native-Immigrant Gaps in Educational and School-to-Work Transitions in the Second Generation: The Role of Gender and Ethnicity
We study how native-immigrant (second generation) differences in educational trajectories and school-to-work transitions vary by gender. Using longitudinal Belgian data and adjusting for family background and educational sorting, we find that both male and female second generation immigrants, especially Turks and Moroccans, lag natives in finishing secondary education and beginning tertiary education when schooling delay is taken into account, though the female gap is larger. The same is true for residual gaps in the transition to work: native males are 30% more likely than comparable Turkish males to be employed three months after leaving school, while the corresponding female gap is 60%. In addition, we study demographic behaviors (fertility, marriage and cohabitation) related to hypotheses that attribute educational and economic gaps to cultural differences between immigrants and natives.
Tags : Analysis; Belgium; Gender - equity; Immigration integration process; Morocco; Paper; School-to-work transition; Source: IZA - Institute for the Study of Labor; Turkey;

Canada. Age, not gender, is the new income divide in Canada, study finds
Age, not gender, is increasingly at the heart of income inequality in Canada, says a new study that warns economic growth and social stability will be at risk if companies don’t start paying better wages.
Tags : Ageing workforce; Article; Canada; Gender - equity; Source: Financial Post; Wages;

Canada. Moving Up or Falling Behind? Gender, Promotions, and Wages in Canada
We estimate gender differences in internal promotion experiences for a representative sample of Canadian workers using linked employer-employee data. We find that women in Canada are 3 percentage points less likely to be promoted and have received fewer promotions than similar men, but these differences stem almost entirely from gender differences in industry and occupation. By contrast, women experience an estimated 2.9 percent less wage growth in the year of a promotion than similar men even after controlling for industry, occupation, and firm effects – though a significant “family gap” exists among women as single women and women without children experience essentially the same wage returns to promotion as men.
Tags : Canada; Gender - equity; Paper; Source: IZA - Institute for the Study of Labor; Wages;

Germany. What Drives the Reversal of the Gender Education Gap? Evidence from Germany
We study the mechanisms that are associated with the gender education gap and its reversal in Germany. We focus on three outcomes, graduation from upper secondary school, any tertiary education, and tertiary degree. Neither individual and family background nor labor market characteristics appear to be strongly associated with the gender education gap. There is some evidence that the gender gap in upper secondary education reflects the rising share of single parent households which impacts boys’ attainment more than girls’. The gender education gap in tertiary education is correlated with the development of class sizes and social norms.
Tags : Accès - éducation; Gender - equity; Germany; Paper; Source: IZA - Institute for the Study of Labor;

India. The amazing school where grandmothers go to learn to save the world
Barefoot College is an NGO that is training a new generation of female solar engineers to fuel the rural developing world with renewable energy.
Tags : Article; Employment - older workers; Engineers; Gender - equity; India; Initiative - Barefoot College; Older workers; Solar Engineering; Source: Upworthy;

Iran. Set To Take Over Tech: 70% Of Iran's Science And Engineering Students Are Women
The common myth about women in Iran is that they are seen, but not heard, that they’re not permitted to drive, that they are second-class citizens, and that entrepreneurship and positions of power are out of reach. These notions are wrong. For years, women in Iran have owned and managed businesses, many of them in male dominant industries like oil and gas, construction, mining, and now tech. And now, with such a high number graduating with degrees in science and engineering, there’s a push to get women more involved in Iran’s blossoming startup scene.
Tags : Article; Gender - equity; Iran; Source: Forbes; STEM - Science_technology_engineering_and mathematics;

Sri Lanka. Why aren’t Sri Lankan women translating their educational gains into workforce advantages?
The last two decades have seen a phenomenal rise in girls’ education and a concomitant decline or stagnation in labor market outcomes for women, especially in female labor force participation in central and southeastern Europe, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. This paper focuses on Sri Lanka, a country with a long record of gender equality in education enrollment and high female completion rates, which has also been characterized by low and stagnant female labor force participation. It remains a puzzle why Sri Lanka has been unable to translate its high girls’ education gains into female labor force participation.
Tags : Analysis; Gender - equity; Source: Brookings Institution; Sri Lanka; Working paper;

Tajikistan. Migration, Education and the Gender Gap in Labour Force Participation
Women who want to work often face many more hurdles than men. This is true in Tajikistan where there is a large gender gap in labour force participation. We highlight the role of two factors – international migration and education – on the labour force participation decision and its gender gap. Using probit and decomposition analysis, our investigation shows that education and migration have a significant association with the gender gap in labour force participation in Tajikistan. International emigration from Tajikistan, in which approximately 93.5% of the participants are men, reduces labour force participation by men domestically; increased female education, especially at the university and vocational level, increases female participation. Both women acquiring greater access to education and men increasing their migration abroad contribute to reducing the gender gap.
Gender - equity; Migration; Paper; Source: IZA - Institute for the Study of Labor; Tajikistan;

USA. National hiring experiments reveal 2:1 faculty preference for women on STEM tenure track
The underrepresentation of women in academic science is typically attributed, both in scientific literature and in the media, to sexist hiring. Here we report five hiring experiments in which faculty evaluated hypothetical female and male applicants, using systematically varied profiles disguising identical scholarship, for assistant professorships in biology, engineering, economics, and psychology. Contrary to prevailing assumptions, men and women faculty members from all four fields preferred female applicants 2:1 over identically qualified males with matching lifestyles (single, married, divorced), with the exception of male economists, who showed no gender preference. Comparing different lifestyles revealed that women preferred divorced mothers to married fathers and that men preferred mothers who took parental leaves to mothers who did not. Our findings, supported by real-world academic hiring data, suggest advantages for women launching academic science careers.
Tags : Analysis - comparative; Comparative analysis; Gender - equity; Paper; Source: PNAS - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; STEM - Science_technology_engineering_and mathematics; Study; United States of America;

Getting in early to avoid gender stereotyping careers
Overcoming gender segregation in occupations matters to industry and to the economy. Low female workforce participation rates and segregation of women into existing female-dominated industries contribute to labour market rigidity, sub-optimal productivity and economic inefficiency due to the under-utilisation of the skills of women.
Article; Gender - equity; Source: The Conversation;

The value of mentorship, according to 5 women leaders
Mentorship has been identified as a key foundation for the success of women entrepreneurs and women leaders.
Tags : Article; Gender - equity; Mentoring; Source: Devex;

Women and Gender Equality in Higher Education?
Whilst there have been very welcome changes in education, and higher education (HE) especially, such that there is a gender balance of undergraduate students in HE, this does not mean that gender equality has been achieved. Patriarchy or hegemonic masculinity in HE is still strongly felt and experienced despite women’s and feminist involvements in academe over the last 50 years. The question remains about how to transform universities to achieve genuine gender equality across all students and academics in HE.
Tags : Gender - equity; Higher education; Paper; Source: Education Sciences;
DOCUMENTS

Brazil. Upper secondary education and vocational education: challenges of integration
These notes on youth, work and education seek to show some of the points that deserve further study and experimentation in concrete teaching situations. The intention of this text, as was already mentioned, is to highlight themes that deserve further consideration in future studies and in the planning of Secondary Teaching activities, and, more particularly, of Integrated Upper Secondary Education.
Tags : Brazil; Education - youth; Report; Secondary education; Source: UNESCO; VET - implementation;

Canada. Why More Education Will Not Solve Rising Inequality (and May Make It Worse)
The forces driving changes in the Canadian wage structure will not be offset by simply increasing the education level of the workforce. In particular, directing more resources toward university education would benefit children from middle- and upper-income households the most and could in fact increase inequality.  Increasing spending on college and apprenticeship programs appears to be no better as a solution, unless core issues such as low female participation and the low completion rates of participants are effectively addressed. In contrast, targeting expenditures on early childhood development and secondary school toward low-income households has greater potential to reduce inequality both in the long term and across generations. But even in these cases, the ultimate impact on wage differences between middle- and high-earners is unclear. Education and training policy is not a silver bullet for solving inequality.
Tags : Canada; Gender - equity; source: IRPP - Institute for Research on Public Policy; Study;

Worldwide, Gender Divide Remains in Full-Time Employment
The percentage of women working full time for an employer in 2014 did not reach 50% in any country, while this percentage was 50% or higher for men in 13 countries. Women tended to have the highest Payroll to Population (P2P) employment rates in countries with stronger social safety nets and labor market regulations, while the countries with the highest P2P rates for men were a mix of these and more liberal economies.
Related report. Good Jobs 2014
The Good Jobs 2014 report presents the results from Gallup's latest global Payroll to Population (P2P) employment measurements, based on more than 182,000 interviews with adults in 144 countries in 2014.
Tags : Gender - equity; Source: Gallup; Survey 2014; Wages;

Institutionalized Inequality and Brain Drain: An Empirical Study of the Effects of Women’s Rights on the Gender Gap in High-Skilled Migration
This paper investigates the effects of institutionalized gender inequality, proxied by a women’s rights index, on the female high-skilled migration rates relative to that of male (the female brain drain ratio). By developing a model of migration choice I find non-linear effects of gender inequality on the female brain drain ratio as a result of effects of gender inequality on both costs and benefits of migration. At low levels of women’s rights, increases in the index lead to increases in the female brain drain ratio. This is consistent with, at low levels of women’s rights, prohibitively high costs of migration for females. Once a certain level of protections has been afforded to them, the costs to migration are low enough that many women then decide to leave the oppressive society and migrate where the benefits associated with their human capital are higher. However, as women’s rights continue to strengthen, those benefits to migration then tend to decrease. The effect on female brain drain then turns negative. Using a panel of up to 195 countries I find evidence consistent with this model which is robust to instrumental variable approach. A one-point increase in the above average level of this index is associated with an average of about a 25-percentage point decrease in the female brain drain ratio.
Tags : Analysis; Brain drain; Gender - equity; OECD countries; Paper; Source: IZA - Institute for the Study of Labor;

Literacy and education for sustainable development and women's empowerment
This paper sets out to take a wider lens on literacy in order to explore not only ‘what works’ in practical terms of encouraging women to participate in programmes, but also to look at how and why literacy programmes can contribute to sustainable development and processes of empowerment.
Tags : Document; Education - access; Gender - equity; Literacy - adult; Source: CAAL - Council for Advancement of Adult Literacy; Source: UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning;

A guide for gender equality in teacher education policy and practices
Education is a basic human right, and gender equality is fundamental to its full realization. Gender inequalities around the world are manifested in many aspects of education, including access, retention, success, and career choices and opportunities. This is both a cause and a result of systemic discrimination and gender stereotyping. Gender equality in and through teacher education is the ultimate goal of this guide. It seeks to contribute towards quality teacher education by ensuring that girls and boys, women and men are treated equally and have equal access to learning opportunities.
Tags : Document; Education - policy; Education - teachers; Gender - equity; Policy - educational; Source: UNGEI - United Nations Girls` Education Initiative; Teachers;

Who will win – robot, man or woman?
It could take another 118 years before economic gender parity is achieved according to the 10th edition of The Global Gender Gap Report. More worrying, the 2015 Report reveals that progress towards parity is remarkably slow, possibly even stalling.
Related report. The Global Gender Gap Report 2015
Tags : Annual report 2015; Article; Employment trend; Gender - equity; Source: World Economic Forum; Trend - employment;
OTHER

Bangladesh. Resource Guide on Gender Mainstreaming into Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Bangladesh
The main purpose of this Resource Guide is to provide guidance, practical how-to tools and available information on technical resources to support the task of operationalizing the National Strategy for Promoting Gender Equality within TVET institutions . More specifically, the Guide focuses on three objectives: - To facilitate a clear understanding of key barriers to female participation from a gender perspective and analyze their implications in women‘s employment and economic empowerment; - To provide practical tools and guidance on how to mainstream gender effectively into the TVET institutional structures, systems, programmes and activities; - and To provide information on available technical resources to strengthen the capacity of TVET gender focal points in mainstreaming gender equality concerns.
Tags : Bangladesh; Gender - equity; Guide; Source: UNESCO-UNEVOC; VET - vocational education and training;

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