CVA-ACFP Newsletter
October 2015

In Focus
Health Personnal
in Lower-Medium Income Countries

CVA's PICKS OF THE MONTH

Competency-based medical education in two Sub-Saharan African medical schools
This paper presents two medical schools, Makerere University College of Health Sciences and College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, which successfully implemented CBME [Competency-Based Medical Education]. The processes of curriculum revision are described and common themes are highlighted. Both schools used similar processes in developing their CBME curricula, with early and significant stakeholder involvement.
Tags : Competences - based education; Education - medical; Lower-income countries; Medical - education; Nigeria; Paper; Source: Advances in Medical Education and Practice; Source: Global Resource Center; Uganda;

ARTICLES and PAPERS

Haiti. Continuing Professional Development in Low-Resource Settings: Haiti as Example
Continuing medical education, increasingly termed continuing professional development (CPD), constitutes an important aspect of the educational life for any health care practitioner. In many high-resource countries, health care professions have licensure or certification requirements for ongoing CPD, increasing the odds that most providers will engage in these activities. Due to these requirements and the attendant well-financed interest from health care professionals, there exist a wealth of options for CPD within high-resource countries, touching on all aspects of medicine and provided in a huge range of formats.
Tags : Continuing education; Education - continuing; Education - medical; Haïti; Lower-income countries; Medical - education; Paper; Source: Annals of Global Health;

Haiti. A Needs and Resource Assessment of Continuing Medical Education in Haiti
In such resource-challenged settings, access to postgraduate medical education often is limited due to inadequate financial, structural, and academic resources. A crucial component to improved health in Haiti is the expansion of continuing medical education (CME). To our knowledge there have been no previous studies investigating the continuing professional development needs of Haitian physicians working in this context. The objectives of this study are to describe the educational resources available to Haitian physicians and to understand their continuing professional development needs.
Tags : Assessment - skills; Continuing education; Education - continuing; Education - medical; Haïti; Lower-income countries; Medical - education; Paper; Source: Annals of Global Health;

India. Enhancing public health practice through a capacity-building educational programme: an evaluation
The Post-Graduate Diploma in Public Health Management, launched by the Govt. of India under the aegis of the National Rural Health Mission in 2008, aims to enhance the managerial capabilities of public health professionals to improve the public health system. The Govt. of India invested enormous resources into this programme and requested an evaluation to understand the current processes, assess the graduates’ work performance and identify areas for improvement. A continuous mechanism for interaction and dialogue with the graduates during and after completion of the programme should be designed. This evaluation helped by providing inputs for refining the programme.
Tags : Evaluation; Health - personnel; India; Lower-income countries; Paper; Public Health; Source: Human Resources for Health;

Mozambique. The effect of pre-service training on post-graduation skill and knowledge retention among mid-level healthcare providers in Mozambique
Mozambique suffers from critical shortages of healthcare workers including non-physician clinicians, Tecnicos de Medicina Geral(TMGs), who are often senior clinicians in rural health centres. The Mozambique Ministry of Health and the International Training and Education Center for Health, University of Washington, Seattle, revised the national curriculum to improve TMG clinical knowledge and skills. Although curriculum revision had limited effect, marginal improvements in the revised group show promise that these TMGs may have increased ability to synthesize clinical information. Weaknesses in curriculum and practicum implementation likely compromised the effect of curriculum revision. An improvement strategy that includes strengthened TMG training, greater attention to pre-service clinical practice, and post-graduation mentoring may be more advantageous than curriculum revision, alone, to improve care provided by TMGs.
Tags : Curriculum - review; Human resources for health; Lower-income countries; Mozambique; Research paper; Source: Human Resources for Health;

Transforming health professions’ education through in-country collaboration: examining the consortia among African medical schools catalyzed by the Medical Education Partnership Initiative
African medical schools have historically turned to northern partners for technical assistance and resources to strengthen their education and research programmes. In 2010, this paradigm shifted when the United States Government brought forward unprecedented resources to support African medical schools. The grant, entitled the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) triggered a number of south-south collaborations between medical schools in Africa. This paper examines the goals of these partnerships and their impact on medical education and health workforce planning. The consortia described in this paper demonstrate a paradigm shift in the relationship between medical schools in four African countries. While schools in Africa have historically worked in silos, competing for limited resources, MEPI funding that was leveraged to form in-country partnerships has created a culture of collaboration, overriding the history of competition. The positive impact on the quality and efficiency of health workforce training suggests that future funding for global health education should prioritize such south-south collaborations.
Tags : Africa; Health - education; Human resources for health; International cooperation; Lower-income countries; Paper;

Identifying Interprofessional Global Health Competencies for 21st-Century Health Professionals
There is a need for continued debate and dialog to validate the proposed set of competencies, and a need for further research to identify best strategies for incorporating these competencies into global health educational programs. Future research should focus on implementation and evaluation of these competencies across a range of educational programs, and further delineating the competencies needed across all four proposed competency levels.
Tags : Competences - development; Development - workforce; Health - education; Human resources for health; Lower/medium income countries; Paper; Public Health; Source: Annals of Global Health;

A public health e-learning master’s programme with a focus on health workforce development targeting francophone Africa: the University of Geneva experience
Shortage of a competent public health workforce is as a worldwide problem. The situation is especially bad in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2008, the World Health Organization and the Global Health Workforce Alliance launched a call for proposals for a public health training programme with an emphasis on health workforce development specifically targeting Africa. Our article presents the development, implementation and evaluation of an e-learning Master of Advanced Studies in Public Health on Workforce Development. The project was developed in collaboration with academic partner institutions of 10 French-speaking African countries and local/regional/HQ WHO offices. Keys to the success of the programme were the enthusiasm and commitment of students, the availability of the coordination team, the simplicity of the electronic platform and the support of local/regional/WHO offices. Yet, the sustainability of the programme is not assured.
Tags : Africa/South of the Sahara; Article; Case study; Development - workforce; eLearning; Health - education; Health - personnel; Human resources for health; Lower-income countries; Source: Human Resources for Health; Workforce - development; Workforce - shortage;

Equitable access for global health internships: insights and strategies at WHO headquarters
Global health education is at a crossroad. The landmark Commission on Education of Health Professionals for the 21st Century. highlighted the substantial disparities in health education worldwide and proposed reforms to enable all health professionals to “participate in patient and population-centred health systems as members of locally responsive and globally connected teams”.
2015 October Newsletter Focus Health Personnel in Lower-Medium Income Countries; Apprenticeship; Article; Health - education; Health - personnel; Source: The Lancet Global Health;

Educating a New Generation of Doctors to Improve the Health of Populations in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Transformative scale-up will require inter-sectoral engagement to determine how students are recruited, educated, and deployed and will assign greater value to the impact on population health outcomes among the criteria for measuring excellence.
Tags : 2015 October Newsletter Focus Health Personnel in Lower-Medium Income Countries; Education - medical; Human resources for health; Lower/medium income countries; Medical - education; Paper; Source: PLoS Medicine; Target group: Doctors;

Near-Peer Emergency Medicine for Medical Students in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: An Example of Rethinking Global Health Interventions in Developing Countries
During a 3-year time frame, a partnership between medical trainees in Haiti and the United States was forged with the objective of implementing an emergency response skills curriculum at a medical school in Port-au-Prince. The effort sought to assess the validity of a near-peer, bidirectional, crosscultural teaching format as both a global health experiencefor medical students and as an effective component of improving medical education and emergency response infrastructure in developing countries such as Haiti. Near-peer, cross-cultural academic exchange is an effective method of medical studentecentered emergency training in Haiti. Limitations such as successfully implementing sustainability measures, addressing cultural differences, and coordinating between groups persist. This scalable, reproducible, and mutually beneficial collaboration between North American and Haitian medical trainees is a valid conduit for building Haiti’s emergency response infrastructure and promoting global health.
Tags : Haïti; Health - personnel; Human resources for health; Learning - peer learning; Lower/medium income countries; Paper; Peer learning; Source: Annals of Global Health; Training; Training - programs evaluation;

Maximizing the Impact of Training Initiatives for Health Professionals in Low-Income Countries: Frameworks, Challenges, and Best Practices
- Historically, the impact of many health professional training initiatives in low-income countries has been limited by narrow focus on a small set of diseases, inefficient utilization of donor funding, inadequate scale up, insufficient emphasis on the acquisition of practical skills, poor alignment with local priorities, and lack of coordination. - Fortunately, several innovative training initiatives have emerged over the past five years in sub-Saharan Africa. This articles focuses on four initiatives funded by the United States government: the Medical Education Training Partnership Initiative (MEPI), the Nursing Training Partnership Initiative (NEPI), the Rwanda Human Resources for Health Program (HRH Program), and the Global Health Service Partnership (GHSP). - The best practices adopted by these initiatives are: alignment to local priorities, country ownership, competency-based training, institutional capacity building, and the establishment of long-lasting partnerships with international stakeholders, - Based on these best practices, we outline a framework for health professional training initiatives that can help better address the health workforce shortage in low-income countries.
Tags : Africa/South of the Sahara; Best practice; Framework - policy; Health - education; Human resources for health; Lower-income countries; Paper; Source: PLoS Medicine;
DOCUMENTS

Road Map for Scaling Up the Human Resources for Health in the African Region 2012–2025
The Road map, which was developed with the appreciable contribution of critical stakeholders such as ministries of health, education, public services and finance as well as universities and training institutions regulators, professional bodies, civil society and nongovernmental organizations, defines strategic directions and priority interventions to be implemented in the period 2012–2025.
En français. Feuille de route pour augmenter les effectifs sanitaires : en vue d’une meilleure prestation de services de soins de santé dans la région africaine 2012–2025
Tags : Human resources for health; Lower-income countries; Roadmap; Source: WHO - World Health Organization; Strategy 2012–2025;

Health workforce 2030: Towards a global strategy on human resources for health
This document reflects on the contemporary evidence on what works in health workforce development across different aspects, ranging from assessment, planning and education, across management, retention, incentives and productivity; it outlines the shared understanding among all the constituencies of the GHWA for a forward-looking health workforce agenda. It is intended to inform the development of a World Health Organization (WHO) global strategy on human resources for health, which will be considered by the sixty-ninth World Health Assembly in May 2016, and to inspire and catalyse more incisive, multisectoral action, at country level by planners and policy-makers, and at global level by the international community.
Tags : Educational strategy; Health - education; Human resources for health; Report; Source: WHO - World Health Organization; Strategy - workforce development; Strategy 2030;

Health Worforce 2030: A global strategy on human resources for health
The international community is working to identify a new set of global development goals for the period 2016-2030, to follow the MDGs of the period 2000-2015. The health workforce is one of the areas under consideration as part of the proposed health objective. The development of a global strategy on human resources for health now is therefore very timely, because in its early stages the process to develop the global strategy on HRH can also influence the decisions on the post-2015 development agenda; and once these broader goals and targets have been set at a political level, the global strategy on HRH can provide concrete recommendations and ideas on how to achieve them at a more technical level.
Tags : Brochure; Human resources for health; Source: WHO - World Health Organization; Strategy 2030;

Virtual Reality Simulation Training for Ebola Deployment
Both virtual and hybrid simulation training offer a realistic and effective educational framework and opportunity to provide virtual exposure to operational public health skills that are essential for infection control and Ebola treatment management. This training is designed to increase staff safety and create a safe and realistic environment where trainees can gain essential basic and advanced skills.
Tags : Ebola; Emergency medical service (EMS); Field: Emergency medical service (EMS); Frontline Health Workers; Human resources for health; Humanitarian workers; Lower-income countries; Occupational health and safety; Source: Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness; Training - workforce; Virtual reality simulation;

The Economics of Health Professional Education and Careers
The objective of this paper is to inform the design of policies to better manage health labor market forces by documenting what is known about the influence of market forces on the health professional formation process. It aims to address issues from a global perspective, seeking out patterns of difference between low, middle, and high income countries and across regions of the world. It also aims to understand the evolution of the health professions and of health labor markets over the last 30 years, and to cover all types of health professional, although the constraints of the literature engendered a focus on physicians and nurses.
Tags : Analysis; Economics; Health - education; Human resources for health; Literature review; Paper; Source: World Bank;

Envisioning the Future of Health Professional Education: Workshop Summary (2015)
This workshop summary discusses opportunities for new platforms of communication and learning, continuous education of the health workforce, opportunities for team-based care and other types of collaborations, and social accountability of the health professions. This study explores the implications that shifts in health, policy, and the health care industry could have on health professional education and workforce learning, identifies learning platforms that could facilitate effective knowledge transfer with improved quality and efficiency, and discusses opportunities for building a global health workforce that understands the role of culture and health literacy in perceptions and approaches to health and disease.  
Tags : Health - education; Health - personnel; Human resources for health; Report; Source: National Academy Press; Trend - education;
OTHER

Bangladesh. Teachers’ Guide to the Bangladesh Health Project curriculum for Bachelor of Science in Nursing
The purpose of this Open Educational Resource [OER] is to provide a template or prototype that can be adapted for other settings. This should benefit nurse educators and their students.
Tags : Bangladesh; Curriculum - guide; Guide; Health - education; Lower-income countries; Nurses; OER - Open Educational Resources; Open Educational Resources - OER; Source: Open Resources for Nurse Educators; Target group: Nurses;

ORB: A Groundbreaking, Online Global Library for Training Frontline Health Workers
ORB is the first comprehensive online library of high quality, mobile-optimized, openly licensed training materials for frontline health workers. Through relevant, timely training materials and information, ORB helps frontline workers access the knowledge they need to transform health outcomes for millions of women and children.
Tags : Database ORB; Frontline Health Workers; Health - personnel; ORB Database; Resources; Source: K4Health; Training - material;

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